Evolving Indirectly Represented Melodies with Corpus-Based Fitness Evaluation

  • Jacek Wolkowicz
  • Malcolm Heywood
  • Vlado Keselj
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5484)


The paper addresses the issue of automatic generation of music excerpts. The character of the problem makes it suitable for various kinds of evolutionary computation algorithms. We introduce a special method of indirect melodic representation that allows simple application of standard search operators like crossover and mutation with no repair mechanisms necessary. A method is proposed for automatic evaluation of melodies based upon a corpus of manually coded examples, such as classical music opi. Various kinds of Genetic Algorithm (GA) were tested against this e.g., generational GAs and steady-state GAs. The results show the ability of the method for further applications in the domain of automatic music composition.


Music generation unigrams MIDI generational genetic algorithms Steady-state genetic algorithms automatic fitness assessment 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacek Wolkowicz
    • 1
  • Malcolm Heywood
    • 1
  • Vlado Keselj
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Computer ScienceDalhousie UniversityHalifax NSCanada

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