Awareness and Reflection in Mobile Learning Support

  • Christian Glahn
  • Dirk Börner
  • Jeroen Storm
  • Marcus Specht


This chapter analyses contextual parameters for designing mobile information visualization for stimulating reflection on learning actions. We discuss the transformation process from a desktop centered web-application into a mobile web-information system. Such transformations are always required whenever desktop applications do not meet the fundamental requirements of mobile or – more precisely – hand-held technologies.


  1. Beck, J.C. Wade M.: Got Game, How the Gamer Generation is Reshaping the Business Forever. (2004), Boston, MA: Harvard Business School PressGoogle Scholar
  2. Benford, S., Rowland, D., Flintham, M., Drozd, A., Hull, R., Reid, J., Morrison, J., Facer, K.: Life on the edge: supporting collaboration in location-based experiences, Proc. of CHI 2005, Portland, Oregon USA, Apr. 2005, pp. 721–730, ACM Press, ISBN 1581139985Google Scholar
  3. Brusilovsky, P., Karagiannidis, C., Sampson, D.: The benefits of layered evaluation of adaptive application and services. 8th International Conference on User Modelling, Sonthofen, Germany (2001)Google Scholar
  4. Butler, D. L., Winne, P. H.: Feedback and self-regulated learning: a theoretical synthesis. Rev. Educ. Res. 65, 245--281 (1995)Google Scholar
  5. Chen, G. Kotz, D.: A Survey of Context-Aware Mobile Computing Research. Dartmouth Computer Science Technical Report TR2000-381, (2000), Dartmouth College, Hanover, NHGoogle Scholar
  6. Cristea, A., Calvi, L.: The three layers of adaptation granularity. 9th International Conference on User Modelling (Springer, Johnstown, PA 2003) pp. 4–14Google Scholar
  7. Csikszentmilaly, M.: Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience(Harper Collins, New York 1991)Google Scholar
  8. Dey, A. K., Abowd, G. D.: Towards a Better Understanding of Context and Context-Awareness. Proc. CHI 2000 Workshop on the What, Who, Where, When, and How of Context-Awareness, http:// (2000)
  9. Dey, A. K.: Understanding and using context. Personal Ubiquitous Comput. 5(1), 4--7 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dey, A. K.: Enabling the use of context in interactive applications. Computer-Human Interaction (CHI’00), de Hague, NL (2000) pp. 79–80Google Scholar
  11. Dieberger, A.: Supporting social navigation on the World Wide Web. IJHCS, 46(6), 805–825 (1997)Google Scholar
  12. Dron, J., Boyne, C. W., Mitchell, R.: Footpaths in the stuff swamp. In: WebNet 2001 World Conference on the WWW and Internet Proceedings, 23--27 Oct. 2001, Orlando, FL, USAGoogle Scholar
  13. Erickson, T., Kellogg, W. A.: Social translucence: using minimalist visualizations of social activity to support collective interaction. Designing Information Spaces: The Social Navigation Approach,ed. by K. Höök et al. (Springer, New York, 2003) pp. 17–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Facer, K., Joiner, R., Stanton, D., Reid, J., Hull, R., Kirk, D.: Savannah: mobile gaming and learning? J. Comput. Assisted Learn. 20(6), 399--409 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Farzan, R., Brusilovsky, P.: Social navigation support in E-learning: what are the real footprints?, In Proceedings of Third Workshop on Intelligent Techniques for Web Personalization (ITWP ’05) at Nineteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, ed. by Wade, V., Ashman, H., Smyth, B., Edinburgh, U.K., August 1 (2005) pp. 49–56Google Scholar
  16. Garries, R., Ahlers, R., Driskel, J. E.: Games, motivation, and learning: a research and practice model. Simul. Gaming 33(4), 441--467 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gee, J.P.: What does video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. (2003), New York, NY: Palgrave MacmillanGoogle Scholar
  18. Glahn, C., Specht, M., Koper, R.: Smart indicators on learning interactions. In Creating New Learning Experiences on a Global Scale: LNCS vol 4753. Second European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL, ed. E. Duval, R. Klamma, M. Wolpers (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 2007) pp. 56–70Google Scholar
  19. Glahn, C. Specht, M. Koper, R.: Visualisation of interaction footprints for engagement and motivation in online communities of practice - results of first interviews. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Technology Support for Self-organised Learners (TSSOLL), 2--3. June, 2008, Salzburg, Austria, pp. 29–43. Available at 6 Jul. 2008)
  20. Kobsa, A.: Generic user modeling systems. User Modeling User-Adapted Interact. 11, 49--63 (2001)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kreijns, K.: Socialable CSCL environments; social affordances, sociability, and social presence, doctoral dissertation, Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, (2004)Google Scholar
  22. Kreijns, K., Kirschner, P. A.: Group awareness widgets for enhancing social interaction in computer-supported collaborative learning environments: design and implementation. Paper presented at the 32nd ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Boston, MA (2002)Google Scholar
  23. Lave, J.: The practice of learning. In Understanding Practice, Perspectives on Activity and Context, ed. Chaikin, S., Lave, J. (Cambridge University Press, New York 1993) pp. 3–33Google Scholar
  24. Lave, J., Wenger, E.: Situated Learning, Legitimate Peripheral Participation(Cambridge University Press, New York, 1991) p. 138Google Scholar
  25. Luchini, K., Quintana, C., Soloway, E.: Design guidelines for learner-centered handheld tools. Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria (2004) pp. 135–142Google Scholar
  26. Luchini, K. et al.: Scaffolding in the small: designing educational supports for concept mapping on handheld computers. Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing systems, Minneapolis, USA (2002)Google Scholar
  27. Norman, D. A.: Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things (Basic Books, New York 2005)Google Scholar
  28. Norris, C., Soloway, E.: Using technology to address old problems in new ways. Commun. ACM 41(8), 11--18 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Norris C., Soloway E.: Envisioning the handheld-centric classroom. J. Educ. Comput. Res. 30: 281--294 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nova, N., Girardin, F., Dillenbourg, P.: Location is not enough!: an empirical study of location-awareness in mobile collaboration. In Proceeding of the third IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Educations, Tokushima, Japan, November 28--30 (IEEE Press, New York 2005) pp. 21–28Google Scholar
  31. Rashid, Al Mamunur, Ling, Kimberly, Tassone, Regina D., Resnick, Paul, Kraut, Robert E. and Riedl, J.: Motivating participation by displaying the value of contribution. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2006) pp. 955–958Google Scholar
  32. Schön, D. A.: The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action (Maurice Temple Smith, London 1983)Google Scholar
  33. Schön, D. A.: Educating the Reflective Practitioner (Jossey-Bass, San Francisco 1987)Google Scholar
  34. Specht, M., Kobsa, A.: Interaction of domain expertise and interface design in adaptive educational hypermedia. 7-th International Conference on User Modeling (UM99), Banff, Canada (1999)Google Scholar
  35. Specht, M., Kaibel, A., Apelt, S.: Extending LCMS for Remote Accessible Field Trips in RAFT, Third IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PERCOMW’05), (2005), pp. 302–306Google Scholar
  36. Specht, M., Kravcik, M.: Authoring of Learning Objects in Context. IJEL, 5(1), 25–33 (2006)Google Scholar
  37. Wenger, E.: Communities of Practice, Learning, Meaning, and Identity. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1998)Google Scholar
  38. Wenger, E.: Learning for a small planet: community, meaning and identity. In Open Universiteit Nederland (Ed.), Dies Natalis (pp. 7–12). September 23, 2007. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands. Retrieved on December 12, 2008 from
  39. Wenger, E., White, N., John, D., Rowe, K.: Technology for communities. In Guide de mise en place et d’animation de communautés de pratique intentionelle, CEFRIO, Québec (2005) Also available from (accessed 6.Jul. 2008)
  40. Wexelblatt, A., Maes, P.: Footprints: history-rich tools for information foraging, CHI’99: Human Factors in Computing Systems, Pittsburgh, PA (1999), pp. 270–277Google Scholar
  41. Zimmermann, A., Lorenz, A., Specht, M.: Personalization and Context-Management. User Modeling User Adaptive Interact. 15(3--4), 275--302 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Glahn
    • 1
  • Dirk Börner
    • 1
  • Jeroen Storm
    • 1
  • Marcus Specht
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Learning Sciences and TechnologiesOpen University of the NetherlandsValkenburgerweg 177The Netherlands

Personalised recommendations