Advertisement

Contribution of Lunar Laser Ranging to Realise Geodetic Reference Systems

  • Jürgen MüllerEmail author
  • Liliane Biskupek
  • Jürgen Oberst
  • Ulrich Schreiber
Chapter
Part of the International Association of Geodesy Symposia book series (IAG SYMPOSIA, volume 134)

Abstract

Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) has provided observations for more than 36 years. There is enormous science potential of LLR to further our understanding of the dynamics of the Earth-Moon system (e.g.Earth orientation parameters (EOP) or the secular increase of the Earth-Moon distance: 3.8 cm/year) and to determine relativistic quantities such as the equivalence principle or any time variation of the gravitational constant. Here, we discuss the potential of LLR to contribute to the realisation of various reference systems, i.e. the terrestrial and selenocentric frame, but also thedynamic realisation of the celestial reference system, where most benefit is obtained from the long-term stability of the lunar orbit. Because of the tight link budget, only a handful terrestrial laser ranging stations are capable to routinely carry out the distance measurements (at cm level of precision). Therefore, we propose a next-generation lunar ranging experiment. Lunar landers shall deploy laser ’beacons’pointing at Earth.We estimate that the received pulse strength froma50 mJ Laser is 3 orders of magnitude larger than at classical LLR. Such laser shots could be received by most existing Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) stations and measurement accuracies at mm level can then be accomplished. The contribution to the realisations of the aforementioned geodetic reference systems could be further improved.If in addition radio transponders were deployed at the same locations, a strong tie to the kinematic VLBI system couldbe established.

Keywords

Satellite/Lunar Laser Ranging Reference Frames Earth-Moon dynamics 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Degnan, J.J.: Asynchronous Laser Transponders for Precise Interplanetary Ranging and Time Transfer.Journal of Geodynamics (Special Issue on Laser Altimetry), 551-594, 2002.Google Scholar
  2. IAUResolutions 2000: http://syrte.obspm.fr/IAU resolutions/Resol-UAI.htm
  3. IERS Conventions 2003. IERS Technical Note No. 32, D.D. McCarthy and G. Petit (eds.), Frankfurt, BKG, 2004. Please find electronic version at http://tai.bipm.org/iers/conv2003/conv2003.html
  4. Konopliv, A.S., Asmar, S.W., Carranza, E., Yuan, D.N., and Sjogren, W.L.: Recent gravity models as a result of the lunar prospector mission, Icarus, 150,1-18,2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Müller, J.: Analyse von Lasermessungen zum Mond im Rahmen eine Post-Newtonschen Theorie. Ph.D. thesis. Veröffentlichung der Deutschen Geodätischen Kommission, Reihe C, Nr.383, München 1991.Google Scholar
  6. Müller, J.: FESG/TUM, Report about the LLR Activities. ILRS Annual Report 1999, M. Pearlman, L.Taggart (eds.),P.204-208, 2000.Google Scholar
  7. Müller, J., and Nordtvedt, K.: Lunar laser ranging and the equivalence principle signal. Physical Review D, 58, 062001, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Müller, J., Williams, J., Turyshev, S., Shelus, P.: Potential Capabilities of Lunar Laser Ranging for Geodesy and Relativity. In: Dynamic Planet. P. Tregoning, C. Rizos (eds.),IAG Symposia 130,P.903-909, Springer, 2006,gr-qc/0509019.Google Scholar
  9. Pearlman, M.R., Degnan, J.J., and Bosworth, J.M.: The International Laser Ranging Servic, Advances in Space Research, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 135-143, July 2002, DOI:10.1016/S0273-1177(02)00277-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Williams, J.G., Turyshev, S.G., and Murphy, T.W., Jr.: Improving LLR Tests of Gravitational Theory.(Fundamental Physics meeting, Oxnard, CA, April 2003), International Journal of Modern Physics D, V13 (No.3), 567-582,2004, gr-qc/0311021.Google Scholar
  11. Williams, J.G., Boggs, D.H., and Ratcliff, J.T.: Lunar Fluid Core and Solid-Body Tides.Abstract No.1503 of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVI, March 14-18, 2005.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jürgen Müller
    • 1
    Email author
  • Liliane Biskupek
    • 1
  • Jürgen Oberst
    • 2
  • Ulrich Schreiber
    • 3
  1. 1.Institut für Erdmessung, Leibniz Universität Hannover30167 HannoverGermany
  2. 2.German Aerospace CenterInstitute of Planetary ResearchBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Forschungseinrichtung Satellitengeodäsie, Fundamentalstation Wettzell93444 Bad KötztingGermany

Personalised recommendations