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Molecular Neurooncology and Neoangiogenesis of Malignant Gliomas

  • Markus Hutterer
  • Günther Stockhammer
Chapter

Abstract

Malignant gliomas are the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumors in adults. Advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy only have a minor impact on the natural course of these tumors. Due to the dismal prognosis of malignant glioma patients, there is an urgent need for new innovative treatments based on a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of gliomagenesis. Many growth factors, growth factor receptors – usually receptor tyrosine kinases – and receptor-associated intracellular signaling pathways are critically involved in glioma growth, invasiveness and tumor neovascularization.

Therefore, this chapter highlights the most important signaling pathways involved in initiation and progression of malignant gliomas. The knowledge of these pathways is the rationale of several concepts of new innovative molecular therapies in modern neurooncology.

Keywords

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Glioma Cell Malignant Glioma Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression PTEN Mutation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AAC

Anaplastic astrocytoma

AG

Anaplastic glioma

AOD

Anaplastic oligodendroglioma

ASO

Antisense oligonucleotide

ClR

Clinical response

CR

Complete response

DAG

Diacylglycerol

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor

ERK

Extracellular signal regulated kinase

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

FGFR

Fibroblast growth factor receptor

GBM

Glioblastoma multiforme

GF

Growth factor

Grb2

Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2

IGF

Insulin growth factor

IGFR

Insulin growth factor receptor

LT

Ligand linked targeted toxins

mAB

Neutralizing monoclonal antibody

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MEK

MAPK/ERK kinase

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

PD

Progressive disease

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PDGFR

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor

PI3K

Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase

PKC

Proteinkinase C

PLC

Phospholipase C

PR

Partial response

rAAC

Recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma

Ras-GAP

GTPase-activating protein of Ras

Ras-GTP

Ras-guanosine-triphosphate, active Ras

rGBM

Recurrent glioblastoma multiforme

rHGG

Recurrent high grade Glioma

RTK

Receptor tyrosine kinase

SD

Stable disease

SR

Soluble receptor

SMI-R

Small molecule inhibitor of receptors

SMI-S

Small molecule inhibitor of intracellular signaling molecules

TGF

Transforming growth factor

TGFR

Transforming growth factor receptor

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology (Neurooncology Group)Medical University of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

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