Chapter

Meteorological and Air Quality Models for Urban Areas

pp 97-123

Date:

Urban Surface Energy Balance Models: Model Characteristics and Methodology for a Comparison Study

  • C.S.B. GrimmondAffiliated withKing’s College London Email author 
  • , Martin BestAffiliated withMet Office, Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research
  • , Janet BarlowAffiliated withDepartment of Meteorology, University of Reading
  • , A. J. ArnfieldAffiliated withDepartment of Geography, The Ohio State University
  • , J.-J. BaikAffiliated withSchool of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University
  • , A. BaklanovAffiliated withDanish Meteorological Institute, DMI
  • , S. BelcherAffiliated withDepartment of Meteorology, University of Reading
  • , M. BruseAffiliated withInstitute of Geography, Johannes-Gutenberg University of Mainz
  • , I. CalmetAffiliated withLaboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides, Ecole Centrale de Nantes (ECN), UMR 6598 CNRS
    • , F. ChenAffiliated withResearch Applications Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)
    • , P. ClarkAffiliated withMet Office, Joint Centre for Mesoscale Meteorology (JCMM)
    • , A. DandouAffiliated withDepartment of Environmental Physics and Meteorology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
    • , E. ErellAffiliated withJacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Sede-Boqer Campus Midreshet, Ben Gurion University of the Negev
    • , K. FortuniakAffiliated withDepartment of Meteorology and Climatology, University of Lodz
    • , R. HamdiAffiliated withRoyal Meteorological Institute
    • , M. KandaAffiliated withTokyo Institute of Technology
    • , T. KawaiAffiliated withTokyo Institute of Technology
    • , H. KondoAffiliated withNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
    • , S. KrayenhoffAffiliated withDepartment of Geography, University of British Columbia
    • , S. H. LeeAffiliated withSchool of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University
    • , S.-B. LimorAffiliated withBen-Gurion University of the Negev
    • , A. MartilliAffiliated withCentro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT)
    • , V. MassonAffiliated withCentre National de Recherches. Météorologiques, Meteo-France
    • , S. MiaoAffiliated withInstitute of Urban Meteorology
    • , G. MillsAffiliated withSchool of Geography, Planning & Environmental Policy, University College
    • , R. MoriwakiAffiliated withDepartment of Civil Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology
    • , K. OlesonAffiliated withNational Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)
    • , A. PorsonAffiliated withDepartment of Meteorology, University of Reading
    • , U. SieversAffiliated withDeutscher Wetterdienst
    • , M. TombrouAffiliated withDepartment of Environmental Physics and Meteorology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
    • , J. VoogtAffiliated withDepartment of Geography, University of Western Ontario
    • , T. WilliamsonAffiliated withUniversity of Adelaide

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Abstract

Many urban surface energy balance models now exist. These vary in complexity from simple schemes that represent the city as a concrete slab, to those which incorporate detailed representations of momentum and energy fluxes distributed within the atmospheric boundary layer. While many of these schemes have been evaluated against observations, with some models even compared with the same data sets, such evaluations have not been undertaken in a controlled manner to enable direct comparison. For other types of climate model, for instance the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) experiments (Henderson-Sellers et al., 1993), such controlled comparisons have been shown to provide important insights into both the mechanics of the models and the physics of the real world. This paper describes the progress that has been made to date on a systematic and controlled comparison of urban surface schemes. The models to be considered, and their key attributes, are described, along with the methodology to be used for the evaluation.