Urban Surface Energy Balance Models: Model Characteristics and Methodology for a Comparison Study

  • C.S.B. Grimmond
  • Martin Best
  • Janet Barlow
  • A. J. Arnfield
  • J.-J. Baik
  • A. Baklanov
  • S. Belcher
  • M. Bruse
  • I. Calmet
  • F. Chen
  • P. Clark
  • A. Dandou
  • E. Erell
  • K. Fortuniak
  • R. Hamdi
  • M. Kanda
  • T. Kawai
  • H. Kondo
  • S. Krayenhoff
  • S. H. Lee
  • S.-B. Limor
  • A. Martilli
  • V. Masson
  • S. Miao
  • G. Mills
  • R. Moriwaki
  • K. Oleson
  • A. Porson
  • U. Sievers
  • M. Tombrou
  • J. Voogt
  • T. Williamson
Chapter

Abstract

Many urban surface energy balance models now exist. These vary in complexity from simple schemes that represent the city as a concrete slab, to those which incorporate detailed representations of momentum and energy fluxes distributed within the atmospheric boundary layer. While many of these schemes have been evaluated against observations, with some models even compared with the same data sets, such evaluations have not been undertaken in a controlled manner to enable direct comparison. For other types of climate model, for instance the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) experiments (Henderson-Sellers et al., 1993), such controlled comparisons have been shown to provide important insights into both the mechanics of the models and the physics of the real world. This paper describes the progress that has been made to date on a systematic and controlled comparison of urban surface schemes. The models to be considered, and their key attributes, are described, along with the methodology to be used for the evaluation.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • C.S.B. Grimmond
    • 1
  • Martin Best
    • 2
  • Janet Barlow
    • 3
  • A. J. Arnfield
    • 4
  • J.-J. Baik
    • 5
  • A. Baklanov
    • 6
  • S. Belcher
    • 3
  • M. Bruse
    • 7
  • I. Calmet
    • 8
  • F. Chen
    • 9
  • P. Clark
    • 10
  • A. Dandou
    • 11
  • E. Erell
    • 12
  • K. Fortuniak
    • 13
  • R. Hamdi
    • 14
  • M. Kanda
    • 15
  • T. Kawai
    • 15
  • H. Kondo
    • 16
  • S. Krayenhoff
    • 17
  • S. H. Lee
    • 18
  • S.-B. Limor
    • 19
  • A. Martilli
    • 20
  • V. Masson
    • 21
  • S. Miao
    • 22
  • G. Mills
    • 23
  • R. Moriwaki
    • 24
  • K. Oleson
    • 25
  • A. Porson
    • 26
  • U. Sievers
    • 27
  • M. Tombrou
    • 11
  • J. Voogt
    • 28
  • T. Williamson
    • 29
  1. 1.King’s College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Met Office, Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and ResearchBracknellUK
  3. 3.Department of MeteorologyUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  4. 4.Department of GeographyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  5. 5.School of Earth and Environmental SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  6. 6.Danish Meteorological InstituteDMICopenhagenDenmark
  7. 7.Institute of GeographyJohannes-Gutenberg University of MainzMainzGermany
  8. 8.Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides, Ecole Centrale de Nantes (ECN)UMR 6598 CNRSNantes Cedex 3France
  9. 9.Research Applications LaboratoryNational Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)BoulderUSA
  10. 10.Met Office, Joint Centre for Mesoscale Meteorology (JCMM)ReadingUK
  11. 11.Department of Environmental Physics and MeteorologyNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  12. 12.Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Sede-Boqer Campus MidreshetBen Gurion University of the NegevBen-GurionIsrael
  13. 13.Department of Meteorology and ClimatologyUniversity of LodzLodzPoland
  14. 14.Royal Meteorological InstituteBrusselsBelgium
  15. 15.Tokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan
  16. 16.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyIbarakiJapan
  17. 17.Department of GeographyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  18. 18.School of Earth and Environmental SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  19. 19.Ben-Gurion University of the NegevBeer-ShevaIsrael
  20. 20.Centro de Investigaciones EnergéticasMedioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT)MadridSpain
  21. 21.Centre National de Recherches. Météorologiques, Meteo-FranceToulouse CedexFrance
  22. 22.Institute of Urban MeteorologyBeijingP.R. China
  23. 23.School of Geography, Planning & Environmental PolicyUniversity CollegeDublin 4Ireland
  24. 24.Department of Civil EngineeringTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan
  25. 25.National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)BoulderUSA
  26. 26.Department of MeteorologyUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  27. 27.Deutscher WetterdienstFreiburgGermany
  28. 28.Department of GeographyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  29. 29.University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

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