Advertisement

Back-Analysis of Water Waves Generated by the Xintan Landslide

  • Yang WangEmail author
  • Guoqing Xu
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

The Xintan landslide, a fast-moving landslide that occurred on June 12, 1985, is located on the north bank of the Yangtze River at Xintan Town, Zigui County, Hubei Province, China. Investigations showed that this landslide travelled at a speed of about 20 m/s and induced a huge water wave with wave run-up of 54 m on the opposite shore. Back-analysis of water waves generated by the Xintan landslide is used to determine the friction angle of the sliding zone in a state of movement. Newton’s second law and the basic principles of kinematics are used to obtain landslide velocity by the method of back-analysis, and the volume conversion law and the viscous force formula in flow fields are applied to calculate the initial height of the water wave. In terms of continuity equation, movement equation of transient flow and water head loss theory in open channels in hydrodynamics, the propagation process of the landslide surge is divided into two stages: the sharp-decay stage and the slow-decay stage. It is assumed that the sharp-decay stage is a kind of exponential decay and the slow-decay stage is a kind of water head loss with propagation distance in an open channel. Wave run-up on the opposite shore is calculated with the consideration of slope angle and run-up azimuth. It is concluded that an appropriate value of the reduction factor of friction angle of the sliding zone is between 0.8 and 0.9, and the results have significance for the selection of the friction angle of the sliding zone in a state of movement and calculation of landslide velocity.

Keywords

Xintan landslide Water wave Back-analysis Friction angle Decay Run-up 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was made possible by the New Teacher Project of Doctor-Point Funding from Ministry of Education of China (No. 20070491015) and the Research Foundation for Outstanding Young Teachers, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan). These supports are gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Chai HJ, Liu HC, Zhang ZY (1995) The classification of Chinese landslide dam events. Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation 6(4): 1–9Google Scholar
  2. Chen, XD (1984) Experiential method of surge triggered by landslide in reservoir and design of program. Science and Research School in Zhongnan Institute of Reconnaissance and Design of the Ministry of Water Conservancy and Electric Power, Changsha, 18 pp (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Christopher GK, Bruce L (1977) Finite element approach to waves due to landslides. Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE 103(9): 1021–1029Google Scholar
  4. Grilli ST, Vogelmann S, Watts P (2002) Development of 3D numerical wave tank for modelling tsunami generation by underwater landslides. Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements 26: 301–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Guo XZ, Zhang Y, Chu ZC, et al. (1991) Geological hazards of China and their prevention and control. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 259 ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Harbitz CB, Pedersen G, Gjevik B (1993) Numerical simulations of large water waves due to landslides. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE 119(12): 1325–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jiang ZB, Jin F, Sheng J (2005) Numerical simulations of water waves due to landslide. Journal of Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute 22(5): 1–3Google Scholar
  8. Jin DL, Wang GF (1988) Tangyanguang landslide of Zhexi reservoir. In: Ground Rock Engineering Professional Committee of China's Rock Mechanics and Engineering Academy & Engineering Geological Professional Committee of China's Geology Academy (ed.) Typical Landslides in China. Scientific Press, Beijing, pp 301–307Google Scholar
  9. Li W, Xu XP (2000) Hydraulics. Wuhan University of Hydraulic and Electricity Press, Wuhan, 469 pp (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. Li WX (1982) Differential Equations of Hydraulics and its Application (Translated by Han, ZH, Zhen, KQ). Shanghai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, 386 pp (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. Li YS (1988) Jipazi landslide – An example of the reactivated old landslide in the three gorges region of Yangtze river. In: Ground Rock Engineering Professional Committee of China's Rock Mechanics and Engineering Academy & Engineering Geological Professional Committee of China's Geology Academy (ed.) Typical Landslides in China, Scientific Press, Beijing, pp 323–328Google Scholar
  12. Noda E (1970) Water waves generated by landslides. Journal of the Waterways, Harbours and Coastal Engineering Division, ASCE 96(4): 835–855Google Scholar
  13. Pan JZ (1980) Stability of Construction Against Sliding and Analysis of Landslide. Water Conservancy Press, Beijing, 238 pp (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. Panizzo A, Bellotti G, Girolamo PE (2002) Application of wavelet transform analysis to landslide generated waves. Coastal Engineering 44: 321–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pérezl G, García-Navarro P, Vázquex-Cendón ME (2006). One-dimensional model of shallow water surface waves generated by landslides. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 132(5): 462–473Google Scholar
  16. Rockfall Investigation Office of the Xiling Gorge in Hubei Province (1983) The collection of research and investigation data about the Xintan Rockfall on the bank of the Xiling Gorge, the Yangtze River. Yichang, 424 pp (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  17. Rzadkiewicz SA, Mariotti C, Heinrich P (1996) Modelling of submarine landslides and generated water waves. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 21(12): 7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wang DY, Liu SK (1986) Investigation of the surge effect caused by the Landslide at Xintan, Yangtze. Yangtze River 17(10): 24–27Google Scholar
  19. Wang FW, Tan ZD (1991) The forming mechanism and sliding character of Xintan landslide. Journal of Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute 8(3): 28–34Google Scholar
  20. Wang LS, Zhan Z, Su DG, et al. (1988) The preliminary studies of Xintan landslide’s development characteristics and the mechanism of the starting and motioning and stopping. In: Ground Rock Engineering Professional Committee of China's Rock Mechanics and Engineering Academy & Engineering Geological Professional Committee of China's Geology Academy (ed.) Typical Landslides in China, Scientific Press, Beijing, pp 211–224Google Scholar
  21. Wang Y (2005) The research on speed of the landslide and its surge hazard in reservoir (A Dissertation Submitted to China University of Geosciences for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy). China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 100 pp (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. Wieczorek GF, Jakob M, Motyka RJ (2003) Preliminary assessment of landslide-induced wave hazards: Tidal Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park. U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 03-100: U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Geological SurveyGoogle Scholar
  23. Wu MB, Gao JG (1989) Measurement of wave action and mechanical analysis on the slope. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 11(5): 70–77Google Scholar
  24. Xue GF, Liu GF, Ren J (1988) The studies of Xintan landslide.In: Ground Rock Engineering Professional Committee of China's Rock Mechanics and Engineering Academy & Engineering Geological Professional Committee of China's Geology Academy (ed.) Typical Landslides in China, Scientific Press, Beijing, pp 200–210Google Scholar
  25. Yan R (2006) Secondary disaster and environmental effect of landslide and collapsed dams in the upper reaches of Minjiang river (A Dissertation Submitted to Sichuan University for the Degree of Master of Engineering). Sichuan University, Chengdu, 143 pp (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  26. Zhong LX (1993) Enlightenments from the accident of Vaiont landslide in Italy. The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control 5(2): 77–84Google Scholar
  27. Zhu RG, Lu WX (1991) The study of clay strength characteristics at Xintan landslide. In: Huazhong University of Scientific and Technology (ed.) Proceedings of the International Landslide and Geotechnical Engineering, Huazhong University of Scientific and Technology Press, Wuhan, pp 14–19Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.China University of GeosciencesWuhan, HubeiChina

Personalised recommendations