Ontologies and Software Engineering

  • Dragan Gašević
  • Nima Kaviani
  • Milan Milanović
Part of the International Handbooks on Information Systems book series (INFOSYS)


The chapter analyzes the state of the art in the use of ontologies for various software engineering tasks. The chapter starts from defining software engineering as an application context for ontologies. Next, it introduces a framework that identifies places in software lifecycle where ontologies can contribute to improvethe current state of software engineering.


  1. 1.
    Anupriya Ankolekar, Katia Sycara, James Herbsleb, Robert Kraut, and Chris Welty. Supporting Online Problem-solving Communities with the Semantic Web. In Proc. of the 15th Int’l conf. on WWW, pages 575–584, 2006.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nicolas Anquetil, Káthia M. de Oliveira, Kleiber D. de Sousa, and Márcio G. Batista Dias. Software Maintenance seen as a Knowledge Management Issue. Inf. Softw. Technol., 49(5):515–529, 2007.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Apfelbaum. Model Based Testing. In Soft. Quality Week 1997 Conf., 1997.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Phillip G. Armour. Software: hard data. Commun. ACM, 49(9):15–17, 2006.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    ATLAS Transf. Language, 2006. atl.
  6. 6.
    Daniela Berardi, Diego Calvanese, and Giuseppe De Giacomo. Reasoning on UML class diagrams. Artif. Intell., 168(1):70–118, 2005.MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jean Bézivin. On the unification power of models. Software and System Modeling, 4(2):171–188, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kalina Bontcheva and Marta Sabou. On Self-Validating Rule Bases. In Proc. of the 2nd Int’l WSh on Semantic Web Enabled Software Eng., 2006.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grady Booch. The Irrelevance of Architecture. IEEE Soft., 24(3):10–11, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karin Breitman and Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado Leite. Ontology as a Requirements Engineering Product. In 11th IEEE Int’l Requirements Eng. Conf., pages 309–319, 2003.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Saartje Brockmans, Robert M. Colomb, Elisa F. Kendall, Evan Wallace, Christopher Welty, Guo Tong Xie, and Peter Haase. A Model Driven Approach for Building OWL DL and OWL Full Ontologies. In Proc. of the 5th Int’l Semantic Web Conf., pages 187–200, 2006.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saartje Brockmans, Marc Ehrig, Agnes Koschmider, Andreas Oberweis, and Rudi Studer. Semantic Alignment of Business Processes. In Proc. of the 8th Int’l Conf. on Enterprise Info. Sys., pages 191–196, 2006.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tobias Bürger. Putting Business Intelligence into Documents. In Proc. of the WSh. on Semantic Business Process and Product Lifecycle Management, 2007.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Calero Coral, Ruiz Francisco, and Piattini Mario. Ontologies for Software Engineering and Software Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stephen Cranefield. UML and the Semantic Web. In Proceedings of the Semantic Web Working Symposium, pages 113–130, 2001.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Daniela Damian. Stakeholders in Global Requirements Engineering: Lessons Learned from Practice. IEEE Software, 24(2):21–27, 2007.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Björn Decker, Eric Ras, Jörg Rech, Pascal Jaubert, and Marco Rieth. Wiki-Based Stakeholder Participation in Requirements Engineering. IEEE Software, 24(2):28–35, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. C. Desouza, Y. Awazu, and P. Baloh. Managing Knowledge in Global Software Development Efforts: Issues and Practices. IEEE Soft., 23(5):30–37, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Márcio Dias, Nicolas Anquetil, and Kàthia de Oliveira. Organizing the Knowledge Used in Software Maintenance. J. UCS, 9(7):641–658, 2003.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jens Dietrich and Chris Elgar. Towards a web of patterns. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web, 5(5):108–116, 2007.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jens Dietrich and Nathan Jones. Using Social Networking and Semantic Web Technology in Software Engineering–Use Cases, Patterns, and a Case Study. In Proce. of the 2007 Australian Software Eng. Conf., volume 0, pages 129–136, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2007. IEEE Computer Society.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stefan Dietze, Alessio Gugliotta, and John Domingue. A Semantic Web Services-based Infrastructure for Context-Adaptive Process Support. In Proc. of the International Conf. on Web Services, pages 537–543, 2007.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Joerg Evermann and Yair Wand. Toward Formalizing Domain Modeling Semantics in Language Syntax. IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 31(1):21–37, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jean-Marie Favre. Foundations of Meta-Pyramids: Languages vs. Metamodels - Episode II: Story of Thotus the Baboon.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. Fensel and F. van Harmelen. Unifying Reasoning and Search to Web Scale. IEEE Internet Computing, 11(2):96–95, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. B. France, S. Ghosh, T. Dinh-Trong, and A. Solberg. Model-driven development using UML 2.0: promises and pitfalls. Computer, 39(2):59–66, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Robert France and Bernhard Rumpe. Model-driven Development of Complex Software: A Research Roadmap. In Proc. of 28th Int’l Conf. on Software Eng. - Future of Software Engineering , pages 37–54, 2007.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dragan Gašević and Vladan Devedzić. Petri net ontology. Knowl.-Based Syst., 19(4):220–234, 2006.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dragan Gašević, Dragan Djurić, and Vladan Devedzić. Model Driven Architecture and Ontology Development. Springer, 2006.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    César Gonzàlez-Pèrez and Brian Henderson-Sellers. An Ontology for Software Development Methodologies and Endeavours, volume Ontologies for Software Engineering and Software Technology, pages 123–151. Springer, 2006.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Roy Grønmo, Michael C. Jaeger, and Hjørdis Hoff. Transformations Between UML and OWL-S. In Proc. of the 1st European Conference Model Driven Architecture - Foundations and Applications, pages 269–283, 2005.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hans-Jörg Happel and Stefan Seedorf. Applications of Ontologies in Software Engineering. In Proc. of the Int’l WSh. on Semantic Web Enabled Software Engineering, 2006.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Marek Hatala, Ron Wakkary, and Leila Kalantari. Rules and ontologies in support of real-time ubiquitous application. J. Web Sem., 3(1):5–22, 2005.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. Hendler. Agents and the Semantic Web. IEEE Int. Sys., 16(2):30–37, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. Hendler. The Dark Side of the Semantic Web. IEEE Int. Sys., 22(1):2–4, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Scott Henninger and Padmapriya Ashokkumar. An Ontology-Based Infrastructure for Usability Design Patterns. In Proc. of the Int’l WSh. on Semantic Web Enabled Software Engineering, pages 41–55, 2005.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Allyson Hoss. Ontology-Based Methodology for Error Detection in Software Design. PhD thesis, Louisiana State University Graduate School, 2006.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology-Description, 1990.
  39. 39.
    J.B. Jorgensen and C. Bossen. Executable use cases: requirements for a pervasive health care system. IEEE Software, 21(2):34–41, Mar-Apr 2007.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Frédéric Jouault, Jean Bézivin, and Ivan Kurtev. TCS:: a DSL for the specification of textual concrete syntaxes in model engineering. In Proc. of the 5th Int’l Conf. on Generative Prog. and Component Eng., pages 249–254, 2006.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Aditya Kalyanpur, Daniel Jiménez Pastor, Steve Battle, and Julian A. Padget. Automatic Mapping of OWL Ontologies into Java. In Proc. of the 16th Int’l Conf. on Software Eng. and Knowledge Eng., pages 98–103, 2004.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gerti Kappel, Elisabeth Kapsammer, Horst Kargl, Gerhard Kramler, Thomas Reiter, Werner Retschitzegger, Wieland Schwinger, and Manuel Wimmer. Lifting Metamodels to Ontologies: A Step to the Semantic Integration of Modeling Languages. In Proc. of the ACM/IEEE 9th Int’l Conf. on Model Driven Eng. Languages and Sys., pages 528–542, 2006.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Christoph Kiefer, Abraham Bernstein, and Jonas Tappolet. Analyzing Software with iSPARQL. In Proc. the 3rd ESWC Int’l WSh. on Semantic Web Enabled Software Eng., 2007.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ekkart Kindler, Vladimir Rubin, and Wilhelm Schäfer. Process Mining and Petri Net Synthesis. In Proc. of Business Process Management WSh., pages 105–116, 2006.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Holger Knublauch. Ontology-Driven Software Development in the Context of the Semantic Web: An Example Scenario with Protege/OWL. In Proc. of 1st Int’l WSh on the Model-Driven Semantic Web, 2004.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Florian Lautenbacher and Bernhard Bauer. A Survey on Workflow Annotation and Composition Approaches. In Proc. of the Wsh. on Semantic Business Process and Product Lifecycle Management, 2007.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Seok Won Lee and Robin A. Gandhi. Ontology-based Active Requirements Engineering Framework. In Proc. of the 12th Asia-Pacific Software Eng. Conf., pages 481–490, 2005.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Raghavendra Rao Loka. Software Development: What Is the Problem? IEEE Computer, 40(2):112–111, Feb 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Alexander Maedche. Ontology Learning for the Semantic Web. Kluwer Academic Publishing, Boston, 2002.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. Miller and J. Mukerji. MDA Guide Version 1.0.1. Technical report, Object Management Group (OMG), 2003.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Daniel Oberle. The Semantic management of middleware. Springer, 2006.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    OMG KDM. Architecture-Driven Modernization (ADM): Knowledge Discovery Meta-Model, 2007. pdf.
  53. 53.
    OMG MOF. Meta Object Facility (MOF) Core, v2.0, 2006. http://www.
  54. 54.
    OMG ODM. Ontology Definition Metamodel, 2006. cgi-bin/doc?ad/06-05-01.pdf.
  55. 55.
    OMG QVT. MOF QVT Final Adopted Specification, 2005. http://www.
  56. 56.
    OMG SBVR. Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules, 2005.
  57. 57.
    Yue Pan, GuoTong Xie, Li Ma, Yang Yang, Zhaoming Qiu, and Juhnyoung Lee. Model-Driven Ontology Engineering. Journal of Data Semantics VII, pages 57–78, 2006.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    P. F. Patel-Schneider and I. Horrocks. OWL 1.1 Web Ontology Language: Overview, 2006.
  59. 59.
    S.L. Pfleeger. Software engineering: theory and practice. Prentice-Hall, 1998.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stephan Roser and Bernhard Bauer. An Approach to Automatically Generated Model Transformations Using Ontology Engineering Space. In Proc. of the 2nd Int’l WSh. on Semantic Web Enabled Software Eng., 2006.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Stephen R. Schach. Object-Oriented and Classical Software Engineering. McGraw-Hill, 2006.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    E. Seidewitz. What models mean. IEEE Software, 20(5):26–32, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Vibha Sinha, Bikram Sengupta, and Satish Chandra. Enabling Collaboration in Distributed Requirements Management. IEEE Software, 23(5):52–61, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Katharina Siorpaes and Martin Hepp. myOntology: The Marriage of Ontology Engineering and Collective Intelligence. In Proc. of the Wsh. on Bridging the Gep between Semantic Web and Web 2.0, pages 127–138, 2007.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    P. Spyns, Y. Tang, and R. Meersman. A model theory inspired collaborative ontology engineering methodology. Journal of Applied Ontology. submitted.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    P. Tetlow, J. Z. Pan, D. Oberle, E. Wallace, M. Uschold, and E. Kendall. Ontology Driven Architectures and Potential Uses of the Semantic Web in Systems and Software Engineering. W3C Working Draft, 2006.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    V. Uren, P. Cimiano, J. Iria, S. Handschuh, M. Vargas-Vera, E. Motta, and F. Ciravegna. Semantic Annotation for Knowledge Management: Requirements and a Survey of the state of the art. J. of Web Semantics, 4(1):14–28, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Max Völkel and York Sure. RDFReactor – From Ontologies to Programmatic Data Access. In Poster Proc. of the 4th Int’l Semantic Web Conf., 2005.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Christopher A. Welty. Software Engineering. In Franz Baader, Diego Calvanese, Deborah L. McGuinness, Daniele Nardi, and Peter F. Patel-Schneider, editors, Description Logic Handbook, pages 373–387. Cambridge University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    René Witte, Yonggang Zhang, and Juergen Rilling. Empowering Software Maintainers with Semantic Web Technologies. In Proc. of the 4th European Semantic Web Conference, pages 37–52. Springer, 2007.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dragan Gašević
    • 1
  • Nima Kaviani
    • 2
  • Milan Milanović
    • 3
  1. 1.Athabasca UniversityAthabascaCanada
  2. 2.University of British ColumbiaColumbiaCanada
  3. 3.University of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations