A Self-Organized Clustering Scheme for Overlay Networks
Hierarchical approaches, where nodes are clustered based on their network distances, have been shown to allow for robust and scalable topology-aware overlays. Moreover, recent research works have shown that cluster-based deployments of Internet Coordinates Systems (ICS), where nodes estimate both intra-cluster and inter-cluster distances, do mitigate the impact of Triangle Inequality Violations (TIVs) on the distance predictions, and hence offer more accurate internet latency estimations. To allow the construction of such useful clusters we propose a self-organized distributed clustering scheme. For better scalability and efficiency, our algorithm uses the coordinates of a subset of nodes, known by running an ICS system, as first approximations of node positions. We designed and evaluated two variants of this algorithm. The first one, based on some cooperation among nodes, aims at reducing the expected time to construct clusters. The second variant, where nodes are selfish, aims at reducing the induced communication overhead.
KeywordsICS Clustering Triangle Inequality Violations Performance
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Ng, T.S.E., Zhang, H.: Predicting Internet network distance with coordinates-based approaches. In: Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, New York, NY, USA (June 2002)Google Scholar
- 2.Dabek, F., Cox, R., Kaashoek, F., Morris, R.: Vivaldi: A decentralized network coordinate system. In: Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Portland, OR, USA (August 2004)Google Scholar
- 4.Lua, E.K., Griffin, T.: Embeddable overlay networks. In: IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications, Aveiro, Portugal (2007)Google Scholar
- 5.Kaafar, M.A., Gueye, B., Cantin, F., Leduc, G., Mathy, L.: Towards a two-tier internet coordinate system to mitigate the impact of triangle inequality violations. In: Das, A., Pung, H.K., Lee, F.B.S., Wong, L.W.C. (eds.) NETWORKING 2008. LNCS, vol. 4982, pp. 397–408. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.A simulator for peer-to-peer protocols, http://www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/p2psim/index.html
- 11.Wong, B., Slivkins, A., Sirer, E.: Meridian: A lightweight network location service without virtual coordinates. In: Proc. the ACM SIGCOMM (August 2005)Google Scholar
- 12.R Development Core Team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria (2008) ISBN 3-900051-07-0Google Scholar