Advertisement

A Tale of Two Cities: Density Analysis of CBD on Two Midsize Urban Areas in Northeastern Italy

  • Giuseppe Borruso
  • Andrea Porceddu
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 176)

Abstract

The paper is focused on the observation of urban form and functions and is aimed at identifying a method for the cartographic definition and representation of CBD (Central Business District). The analysis is developed to explore the formation of centers of different order in the urban environment, starting from the locations of a selected set of human activities located in urban areas. An index of concentration of central activities is presented to allow the visualization of the functional urban environment by means of a density surface, therefore highlighting areas where central activities and functions concentrate. The paper is based on analyses related to spatial statistics in a GIS environment. We provide a short review of the literature on CBD research, briefly describe the kernel density estimation method, and propose how this can be used in order to test the index of concentration of activities and therefore delineating CBD, presenting evidence from two urban areas in Northeastern Italy (Trieste and Udine).

Keywords

Central Business District Kernel Density Estimation GIS Nearest Neighbor Analysis Trieste Udine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alonso, W.: A Theory of the Urban Land Market. Pap. Proc. Reg. Sci. Assoc. 6, 149–157 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson, P.M.: Spatial Prediction and Surface Modeling. Geogr. Anal. 37(2), 113–123 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Battisti, G.: Verso il riconoscimento delle nuove realtà urbane. Il contributo del geografo. In: Corna Pellegrini, G., Brusa, C. (eds.) La ricerca geografica in Italia 1960 – 1980. Agei, Varese (1980)Google Scholar
  4. Batty, M., Longley, P.: Fractal Cities. Academic Press, London (1994)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. Batty, M.: Network Geography: Relations, Interactions, Scaling and Spatial Processes in GIS. In: Unwin, D.J., Fisher, P. (eds.) Re-presenting Geographical Information Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2005)Google Scholar
  6. Berry, B.J.L.: Geography of Market Centers and Retail Distributions. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1967)Google Scholar
  7. Bertazzon, S., Lando, F.: Il sistema urbano e turistico. In: Soriani, S. (ed.) L’articolazione territoriale dello spazio costiero. Il caso dell’Alto Adriatico. Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina, Venezia (2003)Google Scholar
  8. Bonetti, E.: La localizzazione delle attività al dettaglio. Giuffré, Milano (1967)Google Scholar
  9. Bonetti, E.: La struttura gerarchizzata dei centri al dettaglio di un contesto urbano e il comportamento del consumatore. Scritti in onore di Ugo Caprara. Vallardi, Milano (1975)Google Scholar
  10. Borruso, G.: Studio della popolazione e della sua evoluzione a scala urbana. Primi risultati di analisi di densità dei dati spaziali. In: Proceedings of the 7th ASITA Conference L’Informazione Territoriale e la dimensione tempo, pp. 467–472 (2003)Google Scholar
  11. Borruso, G.: Network Density Estimation: a GIS Approach for Analysing Point Patterns in a Network Space. Transactions GIS 12, 377–402 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Borruso, G.: Geographical analysis of foreign immigration and spatial patterns in urban areas: Density estimation and spatial segregation. In: Gervasi, O., Murgante, B., Laganà, A., Taniar, D., Mun, Y., Gavrilova, M.L. (eds.) ICCSA 2008, Part I. LNCS, vol. 5072, pp. 459–474. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bullado, E., Buzzetti, L.: La rivoluzione terziaria. Riorganizzazione geografica del commercio. Artimedia, Trento (2001)Google Scholar
  14. Bullado, E.: Trent’anni di politica commerciale in Italia: dalla pianificazione commerciale alla pianificazione urbanistica. Riv. Geogr. Ital. 109, 441–477 (2002)Google Scholar
  15. Carol, H.: The hierarchy of central functions within the city. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. 50, 419–438 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chainey, S., Reid, S., Stuart, N.: When is a hotspot a hotspot? A procedure for creating statistically robust hotspot maps of crime. In: Kidner, D., Higgs, G., White, S. (eds.) Socio-Economic Applications of Geographic Information Science, Innovations in GIS 9. Taylor and Francis, London (2002)Google Scholar
  17. Corna Pellegrini, G., Pagnini, M.P.: Recenti studi di geografia urbana. Riv. Geogr. Ital. 82, 489–509 (1975)Google Scholar
  18. Cuthbert, A.L., Anderson, W.P.: Using Spatial Statistics to Examine the Pattern of Urban Land Development in Halifax-Dartmouth. Prof. Geogr. 54, 521–532 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Matteis, G.: Le località centrali nella geografia urbana di Torino. Università di Torino, Facoltà di Economia e Commercio, Laboratorio di Geografia Economica “P. Gribaudi”, Pubblicazione, n. 2, Torino (1966)Google Scholar
  20. De Matteis, G.: Le metafore della terra. Feltrinelli, Milano (1991)Google Scholar
  21. Gatrell, A.: Density Estimation and the Visualisation of Point Patterns. In: Hearnshaw, H.M., Unwin, D.J. (eds.) Visualisation in Geographical Information Systems. Wiley, Chichester (1994)Google Scholar
  22. Haggett, P.: Geography: A Global Synthesis. Pearson Education, Harlow (2000)Google Scholar
  23. Harris, C.D., Ullman, E.L.: The Nature of Cities. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 242, 7–17 (1945)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harris, R., Sleight, P., Webber, R.: Geodemographics, GIS and Neighbourhood Targeting. Wiley, Chichester (2005)Google Scholar
  25. Hoch, I., Waddel, P.: Apartment Rents: Another Challenge to the Monocentric Model. Geogr. Anal. 25, 20–34 (1993)Google Scholar
  26. Hoyt, H.: The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighborhoods in American Cities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C (1939)Google Scholar
  27. Knos, D.S.: Distribution and Land Values in Topeka, Kansas. Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Lawrence (1962)Google Scholar
  28. Levine, N.: CrimeStat III: A Spatial Statistics Program for the Analysis of Crime Incident Locations. Ned Levine & Associates, Houston, TX, and the National Institute of Justice, Washington D.C (2004)Google Scholar
  29. Matheron, G.: Principles of Geostatistics. Econ. Geol. 58, 1246–1266 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miller, H.J.: Market Area Delimitation Within Networks Using Geographic Information Systems. Geogr. Syst. 1, 157–173 (1994)Google Scholar
  31. Morrill, R.: Classic Map Revisited: The Growth of Megalopolis. Prof. Geogr. 58, 155–160 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Murphy, R.E., Vance, J.E.: Delimiting the CBD. Econ. Geogr. 30, 189–222 (1954a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murphy, R.E., Vance, J.E.: A Comparative Study of Nine Central Business Districts. Econ. Geogr. 30, 301–336 (1954b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. O’ Sullivan, D., Wong, D.W.S.: A Surface-Based Approach for Measuring Spatial Segregation. Geogr. Anal. 39, 147–168 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Scaramellini, G.: Città, località centrali e poli metropolitani nella ricerca geografica. Spunti per una riflessione. In: Scaramellini, G. (ed.) Città e poli metropolitani in Italia. Franco Angeli, Milano (1993)Google Scholar
  36. Scaramellini, G.: Funzioni centrali, funzioni metropolitane, reti urbane. Franco Angeli, Milano (1993)Google Scholar
  37. Thurstain-Goodwin, M., Unwin, D.J.: Defining and Delimiting the Central Areas of Towns for Statistical Modelling Using Continuous Surface Representations. Trans. GIS 4, 305–317 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Waddel, P., Berry, B.J.L., Hoch, I.: The Intersection of Space and Built Form. Geogr. Anal. 25, 5–19 (1993)Google Scholar
  39. Weber, J., Kwan, M.P.: Bringing Time Back: A Study on the Influence of Travel Time Variations and Facility Open Hours on Individual Accessibility. Prof. Geogr. 54, 226–240 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yeats, M.H., Garner, B.J.: The North American City, New York (1976)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Borruso
    • 1
  • Andrea Porceddu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geographical and Historical SciencesUniversity of TriesteTriesteItaly

Personalised recommendations