Singapore Water: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

  • Teng Chye Khoo
Part of the Water Resources Development and Management book series (WRDM)

Singapore is a small island nation with a total land area of about 700 km2, or 65% the size of the city of Zaragoza. However, the population in Singapore is 4.6 million, about 6.5 times that of Zaragoza. The result is a densely populated city that exerts great pressure on competing land uses such as housing, commerce, industry, transport, recreation, schools and universities and, on top of these, water catchments. With no natural aquifers or groundwater, Singapore is considered one of the waterscarce countries. UN studies (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, 2006) have ranked Singapore 170th among 190 countries in terms of fresh water availability. This is not due to the lack of rainfall (which averages 2400mm/year) but rather because of our limited land to catch the rainfall and also because of our increasing population.


Water Reuse Water Catchment United Nations Educational Water Agreement Water Demand Forecast 
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  1. Tortajada C (2006) Water management in Singapore. Int J Water Resour D (June 2006) 22(2):227–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (2006) Water – A Shared Responsibility (United Nations World Water Development Report 2.), Paris.Google Scholar
  3. World Bank Report (1996) ‘Water Supply and Sanitation Projects: The Bank’s Experience – 1967–1989’, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teng Chye Khoo
    • 1
  1. 1.Public Utilities Board of SingaporeRepublic of Singapore

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