Advertisement

Using the Corridor Map Method for Path Planning for a Large Number of Characters

  • Roland Geraerts
  • Arno Kamphuis
  • Ioannis Karamouzas
  • Mark Overmars
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5277)

Abstract

A central problem in games is planning high-quality paths for characters avoiding obstacles in the environment. Current games require a path planner that is fast (to ensure real-time interaction) and flexible (to avoid local hazards). In addition, a path needs to be natural, meaning that the path is smooth, short, keeps some clearance to obstacles, avoids other characters, etcetera.

Game worlds are normally populated with a large number of characters. In this paper we show how the recently introduced Corridor Map Method can be extended and used to efficiently compute smooth motions for these characters. We will consider crowds in which the characters wander around, characters have goals, and characters behave as a coherent group.

The approach is very fast. Even in environments with 5000 characters it uses only 40% of the processing power of a single core of a cpu. Also the resulting paths are indeed natural.

Keywords

Path Planning Computer Animation Attraction Point Path Planner Coherent Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Latombe, J.-C.: Robot Motion Planning. Kluwer, Dordrecht (1991)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    LaValle, S.: Planning Algorithms (2006), http://planning.cs.uiuc.edu
  3. 3.
    Rimon, E., Koditschek, D.: Exact robot navigation using artificial potential fields. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation 8, 501–518 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hart, P., Nilsson, N., Raphael, B.: A formal basis for the heuristic determination of minimum cost paths. IEEE Transactions on Systems Science and Cybernetics 4, 100–107 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Geraerts, R., Overmars, M.: Creating high-quality paths for motion planning. International Journal of Robotics Research 26, 845–863 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Geraerts, R., Overmars, M.: The corridor map method: A general framework for real-time high-quality path planning. Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds 18, 107–119 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Geraerts, R., Overmars, M.: Enhancing corridor maps for real-time path planning in virtual environments. In: Computer Animation and Social Agents (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoff, K., Culver, T., Keyser, J., Lin, M., Manocha, D.: Interactive motion planning using hardware-accelerated computation of generalized Voronoi diagrams. In: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 2931–2937 (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Perlin, K.: An image synthesizer. Computer Graphics 19(3), 287–296 (1985); SIGGRAPH 1985 ProceedingsGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karamouzas, I., Overmars, M.H.: Adding variation to path planning. In: Computer Animation and Social Agents (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Helbing, D., Molnár, P.: Social force model for pedestrian dynamics. Physical Review 51, 4282–4287 (1995)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Morini, F., Yersina, B., Maïm, J., Thalmann, D.: Real-time scalable motion planning for crowds. In: International Conference on Cyberworlds, pp. 144–151 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sud, A., Gayle, R., Andersen, E., Guy, S., Lin, M., Manocha, D.: Real-time navigation of independent agents using adaptive roadmaps. In: ACM symposium on Virtual reality software and technology, pp. 99–106 (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Treuille, A., Cooper, S., Popović, Z.: Continuum crowds. Transactions on Graphics 25, 1160–1168 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Knoblauch, R., Pietrucha, M., Nitzburg, M.: Field studies of pedestrian walking speed and start-up time. Transportation Research Record, 27–38 (1996)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kamphuis, A., Overmars, M.: Finding paths for coherent groups using clearance. In: Eurographics/ ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation, pp. 19–28 (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roland Geraerts
    • 1
  • Arno Kamphuis
    • 1
  • Ioannis Karamouzas
    • 1
  • Mark Overmars
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Information and Computing SciencesUtrecht UniversityUtrechtthe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations