GNSS Remote Sensing of the Environment

  • Joseph L. Awange
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


GNSS satellites such as GPS are playing an increasingly crucial role in tracking low earth orbiting (LEO) remote sensing satellites at altitudes below 3000 km with accuracies of better than 10 cm (Yunck et al. 1990). These remote sensing satellites employ a precise global network of GNSS ground receivers operating in concert with receivers onboard the LEO satellites, with all estimating the satellites’ orbits, GPS orbits, and selected ground locations simultaneously (Yunck et al. 1990). In this chapter, we illustrate the role played by GNSS satellites in measuring changes in the Earth’s atmosphere, its gravity field, and surfaces (e.g., ice layer density). These changes are found by measuring refractivity , inter-satellite distances, and reflected signals (i.e., multipath), respectively.


Total Electronic Content Gravity Field Precipitable Water Vapour Integrate Water Vapour GNSS Receiver 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph L. Awange
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Maseno UniversityMasenoKenya
  2. 2.Curtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  3. 3.Karlsruhe Institute of TechnologyKarlsruheGermany
  4. 4.Kyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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