Abstract

The chapter shows how minimal assumptions on difficult philosophical questions suffice for an engineering approach to the semantics of geospatial information. The key idea is to adopt a conceptual view of information system ontologies with a minimal but firm grounding in reality. The resulting constraint view of ontologies suggests mechanisms for grounding, for dealing with uncertainty, and for integrating folksonomies. Some implications and research needs beyond engineering practice are discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Support for this work was provided in part by the European Commission (IST project SWING, No. FP6-26514). Many discussions in MUSIL (http://musil.uni-muenster.de) and with other colleagues (Andrew Frank, David Mark, Boyan Brodaric and others) as well as comments from two anonymous reviewers have shaped the ideas expressed and helped me articulate them. I am grateful to Lotfi Zadeh for asking how my approach handles uncertainty, to Andrew Frank for asking where objects come from, and to Mike Worboys for asking why we need to talk about anything beyond terms. The chapter gives some preliminary answers.

References

  1. Bennett B, Mallenby D, Third A (2008) An Ontology for Grounding Vague Geographic Terms. In: Eschenbach C, Grüninger M (eds) Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS 2008), IOS Press, pp 280–293Google Scholar
  2. Frank AU (2001) Tiers of ontology and consistency constraints in geographical information systems. International Journal of Geographical Information Science (IJGIS) 15(7): 667–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gibson JJ (1986) The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception, LEA Publishers, Hillsdale, NYGoogle Scholar
  4. Glasersfeld Ev (2002) Radikaler Konstruktivismus: Ideen, Ergebnisse, ProblemeGoogle Scholar
  5. Guarino N (1998) Formal Ontology and Information Systems. In: Guarino N (ed) Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS’98). IOS Press, Amsterdam, Trento, Italy, pp 3–15Google Scholar
  6. Guarino N, Welty C (2002) Evaluating Ontological Decisions with ONTOCLEAN. Communications of the ACM 45: 61–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guizzardi G, Halpin T (eds) (2008) Special Issue: Ontological Foundations for Conceptual Modeling. Applied Ontology 3(1-2)Google Scholar
  8. Hayes PJ (1985) The Second Naive Physics Manifesto. In: Moore Ha (ed) Formal Theories of the Common-sense World. Ablex, Norwood, NJ, pp 1–36Google Scholar
  9. ISO (2002) ISO 19111 - Spatial referencing by geographic coordinates, ISO TC 211Google Scholar
  10. Janowicz K, Keßler C (2008) The Role of Ontology in Improving Gazetteer Interaction. International Journal of Geographical Information Science (IJGIS) 22(10): 1129–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kuhn W (2003) Semantic Reference Systems. International Journal of Geographic Information Science (IJGIS, Guest Editorial) 17: 405–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kuhn W (2005) Geospatial Semantics: Why, of What, and How? Journal on Data Semantics: 1–24Google Scholar
  13. Kuhn W, Raubal M (2003) Implementing Semantic Reference Systems. In: Gould MF, Laurini, R, Coulondre S (eds) 6th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science, Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes, April 24-26, 2003, Lyon, France, pp 63–72Google Scholar
  14. Langacker RW (1987) Foundations of Cognitive Grammar, vol. 1: Theoretical Prerequisites, Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  15. Mark DM (1993) Toward a Theoretical Framework for Geographic Entity Types. In: Frank AU, Campari I (eds) Spatial Information Theory: Theoretical Basis for GIS, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 716, Springer Heidelberg Berlin New York, pp 270–283Google Scholar
  16. Ogden CK, Richards IA (1923) The Meaning Of Meaning, Harcourt Brace JovanovichGoogle Scholar
  17. Putnam H (1975) Mind, Language and Reality, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Quine WVO (1960) Word and Object, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  19. Scheider S, Janowicz K, Kuhn W (2009) Grounding Geographic Categories in the Meaningful Environment, MUSIL working papers, Institute for Geoiformatics (ifgi), University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)Google Scholar
  20. Smith B (2004) Beyond Concepts: Ontology as Reality Representation. In: Varzi A, Vieu L (eds) Proceedings of FOISGoogle Scholar
  21. Smith B (2008) Ontology (Science). In: Eschenbach C, Grüninger, M (eds) Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS 2008), IOS PressGoogle Scholar
  22. Sowa JF (2000) Knowledge Representation. Logical, Philosophical, and Computational Foundations. Brooks Cole, Pacific Grove, CAGoogle Scholar
  23. Vaníček P, Krakiwsky EJ (1982) Geodesy: The Concepts, North-Holland, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  24. Woods WA (1985) What’s in a link: Foundations for Semantic Networks. In: Levesque RJBaHJ (ed) Readings in Knowledge Representation. Morgan Kaufman, pp 218–241Google Scholar
  25. Zadeh LA (2008) Is there a need for fuzzy logic? Information Sciences 178: 2751–2779CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Geoinformatics (ifgi), University of MuensterMuensterGermany

Personalised recommendations