Geographical Information Engineering in the 21st Century

  • Gilberto CâmaraEmail author
  • Lúbia Vinhas
  • Clodoveu Davis
  • Fred Fonseca
  • Tiago Carneiro
Part of the Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography book series (LNGC)


This paper discusses the challenges facing GIS designers in the 21st century. We argue that GI engineers lack a sound theoretical basis that would allow them to make best use of new technologies that handle geospatial data. Considering three important topics for the new generations of GIS (change, semantics, and cognition) we show that GIS theory is in a state of flux. Thus, researchers and engineers need to cooperate more for the new generation of GIS to be built in the best possible way.


Geographical Information System Spatial Cognition Geospatial Data Remote Sensing Image Graphical Information System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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The authors would like to thank Andrew Frank, whose research contributions have pointed to many areas, which are relevant to the GIE field. Frank has contributions in many areas, and this paper discusses only a limited part of his work. The authors also thank Werner Kuhn for many hours of inspired discussion, and the two anonymous reviewers for much useful guidance. Gilberto Camara’s work is partially funded by CNPq (grant PQ 550250/2005-0) and FAPESP (grant 04/11012-0).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gilberto Câmara
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lúbia Vinhas
    • 1
  • Clodoveu Davis
    • 2
  • Fred Fonseca
    • 3
  • Tiago Carneiro
    • 4
  1. 1.Image Processing DivisionNational Institute for Space Research (INPE)Belo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Computer Science DepartmentFederal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  3. 3.College of Information Sciences and TechnologyPennsylvania State University, State CollegePennsylvaniaUSA
  4. 4.Computer Science Institute, Federal University of Ouro PretoBelo HorizonteBrazil

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