Recent developments on mobile devices and networks enable new opportunities for mobile learning anywhere, anytime. Furthermore, recent advances on adaptive learning establish the foundations for personalized learning adapted to the characteristics of each individual learner. A mobile learner would perform an educational activity using the infrastructure (e.g. handheld devices, networks) in an environment (e.g. outdoors). In order to provide personalization, an adaptation engine adapts the educational activity and the infrastructure according to the context. The context is described by the learner’s state, the educational activity’s state, the infrastructure’s state, and the environment’s state. Furthermore, each one of these states is described by its dimensions. Many examples illustrate the adaptation decisions.


adaptation adaptive learning context-aware knowledge society learner profile learner model mobile learning personalized learning pervasive learning ubiquitous learning 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anastasios A. Economides
    • 1
  1. 1.Information Systems DepartmentUniversity of MacedoniaThessalonikiGreece

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