A Fluid Flow Approach to Usability Analysis of Multi-user Systems

  • Mieke Massink
  • Diego Latella
  • Maurice H. ter Beek
  • Michael D. Harrison
  • Michele Loreti
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5247)

Abstract

The analysis of usability aspects of multi-user systems, such as co-operative work systems and pervasive systems, pose particular problems because group behavior of their users may have considerable impact on usability. Model-based analysis of such features leads to state-space explosion because of the sheer number of entities to be modeled when automatic techniques such as model checking are used. In this paper we explore the use of a recently proposed scalable model-based technique based on solving sets of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). Starting from a formal model specified using the Performance Evaluation Process Algebra (PEPA), we show how different groupware usage patterns may be modeled and analyzed using this approach. We illustrate how the approach can explore different design options and their impact on group behavior by comparing file access policies in the context of a groupware application.

Keywords

Formal Methods Model-based usability analysis Performance Evaluation Process Algebra Ordinary Differential Equations Groupware Systems 

References

  1. 1.
    ter Beek, M., Massink, M., Latella, D.: Towards Model Checking Stochastic Aspects of the thinkteam User Interface. In: Gilroy, S.W., Harrison, M.D. (eds.) DSV-IS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3941, pp. 39–50. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    ter Beek, M., Massink, M., Latella, D., Gnesi, S.: Model Checking GroupwareProtocols. In: Darses, F., Dieng, R., Simone, C., Zacklad, M. (eds.) Co-operative Systems Design-Scenario-Based Design of Collaborative Systems. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, vol. 107, pp. 79–194. IOS (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ter Beek, M., Massink, M., Latella, D., Gnesi, S., Forghieri, A., Sebastianis, M.: Model Checking Publish/Subscribe Notification for thinkteam. In: Arenas, A., Bicarregui, J., Butterfield, A. (eds.) Proceedings of FMICS 2004. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 133, pp. 275–294 (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    ter Beek, M., Massink, M., Latella, D., Gnesi, S., Forghieri, A., Sebastianis, M.: A Case Study on the Automated Verification of Groupware Protocols. In: Heitmeyer, C., Pohl, K. (eds.) ICSE 2005, pp. 596–603. ACM, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benoit, A., Cole, M., Gilmore, S., Hillston, J.: Scheduling Skeleton-Based Grid Applications Using PEPA and NWS Source. The Computer Journal 48(3), 369–378 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benoit, A., Cole, M., Gilmore, S., Hillston, J.: Enhancing the effective utilisation of grid clusters by exploiting on-line performability analysis. In: Proceedings of CCGRID 2005, pp. 317–324. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Calder, M., Gilmore, S., Hillston, J.: Automatically deriving ODEs from process algebra models of signalling pathways. In: Proceedings of CMSB 2005, pp. 204–215 (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Campos, J., Harrison, M.: Model checking interactor specifications. Automated Software Engineering 8, 275–310 (2001)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Campos, J., Harrison, M.: Considering context and users in interactive systems analysis. In: van de Veer, G., Palanque, P., Wesson, J. (eds.) Proceedings of EIS 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. LNCS. Springer, Heidelberg (to appear, 2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fields, R.: Analysis of erroneous actions in the design of critical systems. PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of York (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gilmore, S., Tribastone, M.: Evaluating the Scalability of a Web Service-Based Distributed e-Learning and Course Management System. In: Bravetti, M., Núñez, M., Zavattaro, G. (eds.) WS-FM 2006. LNCS, vol. 4184, pp. 214–226. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Harper, R.H.R.: The organization in ethnography – a discussion of ethnographic fieldwork programs in CSCW. Computer Supported Co-operative Work 9(2), 239–264 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harrison, M.D., Kray, C., Campos, J.C.: Exploring an option space to engineer a ubiquitous computing system. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 208C, pp. 41–55 (2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hillston, J.: A Compositional Approach to Performance Modelling. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1996)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hillston, J.: Fluid flow approximation of PEPA models. In: Proceedings of QEST 2005, pp. 33–43. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kindberg, T., Spasojevic, R., Fleck, R., Sellen, A.: The ubiquitous camera: an in-depth study of camera phone use. IEEE Pervasive Computing 4(2), 42–50 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kulkarni, V.: Modeling and Analysis of Stochastic Systems. Chapman & Hall, Boca Raton (1995)MATHGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kwiatkowska, M., Norman, G., Parker, D.: Probabilistic symbolic model checking with PRISM: A hybrid approach. In: Katoen, J.-P., Stevens, P. (eds.) TACAS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2280, pp. 52–66. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Massink, M., Latella, D., ter Beek, M., Harrison, M., Loreti, M.: A Fluid Flow Approach to Usability Analysis of Multi-user Systems-Full version. ISTI Technical Report (to appear), http://www.isti.cnr.it/People/M.Massink/t3ode.pdf
  20. 20.
    Paterno, F., Mancini, C., Meniconi, S.: ConcurTaskTrees: A Diagrammatic Notation for Specifying Task Models. In: Howard, S., Hammond, J., Lindgaard, G. (eds.) Proceedings of INTERACT 1997, pp. 362–369. Chapman & Hall, Boca Raton (1997)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Strigini, L., Povyakalo, A., Alberdi, E.: Human machine diversity in the use of computerized advisory systems: a case study. In: International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN 2003), pp. 249–258 (2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tribastone, M.: The PEPA Plug-in Project. In: Harchol-Balter, M., Kwiatkowska, M., Telek, M. (eds.) Proceedings of QEST 2007, pp. 53–54. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2007)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wirsing, M., Clark, A., Gilmore, S., Holzl, M., Knapp, A., Koch, N., Schroeder, A.: Semantic-Based Development of Service-Oriented Systems. In: Najm, E., Pradat-Peyre, J.-F., Donzeau-Gouge, V.V. (eds.) FORTE 2006. LNCS, vol. 4229, pp. 24–45. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mieke Massink
    • 1
  • Diego Latella
    • 1
  • Maurice H. ter Beek
    • 1
  • Michael D. Harrison
    • 2
  • Michele Loreti
    • 3
  1. 1.CNR - ISTIPisaItaly
  2. 2.School of Computing ScienceNewcastle UniversityUK
  3. 3.Dip. di Sistemi e InformaticaUniversita’ di FirenzeItaly

Personalised recommendations