Prostate Brachytherapy Seed Localization with Gaussian Blurring and Camera Self-calibration

  • Junghoon Lee
  • Xiaofeng Liu
  • Jerry L. Prince
  • Gabor Fichtinger
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5242)


A tomosynthesis-based prostate brachytherapy seed localization method is described. Gaussian-blurred images are computed from a limited number of X-ray images, and a 3-D volume is reconstructed by backprojection. Candidate seed locations are extracted from the reconstructed volume and false positive seeds are removed by optimizing a local cost function. In case where the estimated pose error is large, a self-calibration process corrects the estimation error of the intrinsic camera parameters and the translation of the pose in order to improve the reconstruction. Simulation and phantom experiment results imply that the implanted seed locations can be estimated from four or five images depending on the number of seeds. The algorithm was also validated using patient data, successfully localizing the implanted seeds.


Projection Image Seed Region Seed Removal Prostate Brachytherapy True Seed 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Tubic, D., Zaccarin, A., Beaulieu, L., Pouliot, J.: Automated seed detection and three-dimensional reconstruction, ii. reconstruction of permanent prostate implants using simulated annealing. Med. Phys. 28, 2272–2279 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Narayann, S., Cho, P., Marks, R.: Fast cross-projection algorithm for reconstruction of seeds in prostate brachytherapy. Med. Phys. 29, 1572–1579 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Todor, D.A., Cohen, G.N., Amols, H.I., Zaider, M.: Operator-free, film-based 3d seed reconstruction in brachytherapy. Phys. Med. Biol. 47(12), 2031–2048 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lam, S.T., Cho, P.S., MarksII, R.J., Narayanan, S.: Three-dimensional seed reconstruction for prostate brachytherapy using hough trajectories. Phys. Med. Biol. 49(4), 557–569 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jain, A.K., Zhou, Y., Mustafa, T., Burdette, E.C., Chirikjian, G.S., Fichtinger, G.: Matching and reconstructoin of brachytherapy seeds using the hungarian algorithm (MARSHAL). Med. Phys. 32, 3475–3492 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Su, Y., Davis, B.J., Herman, M.G., Robb, R.A.: Prostate brachytherapy seed localization by analysis of multiple projections: Identifying and addressing the seed overlap problem. Med. Phys. 31, 1277–1287 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Singh, V., Mukherjee, L., Xu, J., Hoffmann, K.R., Dinu, P.M., Podgorsak, M.: Brachytherapy seed localization using geometric and linear programming technique. IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 26, 1291–1304 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tutar, I.B., Managuli, R., Shamdasani, V., Cho, P.S., Pathak, S.D., Kim, Y.: Tomosynthesis-based localization of radioactive seeds in prostate brachytherapy. Med. Phys. 30, 101–109 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu, X., Jain, A.K., Fichtinger, G.: Prostate implant reconstruction with discrete tomography. In: Ayache, N., Ourselin, S., Maeder, A. (eds.) MICCAI 2007, Part I. LNCS, vol. 4791, pp. 734–742. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jain, A.K., Mustafa, T., Zhou, Y., Burdette, C., Chirikjian, G.S., Fichtinger, G.: FTRAC - a robust fluoroscope tracking fiducial. Med. Phys. 32, 3185–3198 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bertsekas, D.P.: Nonlinear programming, 2nd edn. Athena Scientific, Belmont (1999)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee, J., Liu, X., Jain, A.K., Prince, J.L., Fichtinger, G.: Tomosynthesis-based radioactive seed localization in prostate brachytherapy using modified distance map images. In: Proc. of ISBI, May 2008, pp. 680–683 (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junghoon Lee
    • 1
  • Xiaofeng Liu
    • 2
  • Jerry L. Prince
    • 1
  • Gabor Fichtinger
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUSA
  2. 2.Computer ScienceJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.School of ComputingQueen’s UniversityCanada

Personalised recommendations