Software Functional Size: For Cost Estimation and More

  • Baris Ozkan
  • Oktay Turetken
  • Onur Demirors
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 16)


Determining software characteristics that will effectively support project planning, execution, monitoring and closure remains to be one of the prevalent challenges software project managers face. Functional size measures were introduced to quantify one of the primary characteristics of software. Although functional size measurement methods have not been without criticisms, they have significant promises for software project management. In this paper, we explore the contributions of functional size measurement to project management. We identified diverse uses of functional size by performing a literature survey and investigating how functional size measurement can be incorporated into project management practices by mapping the uses of functional size to the knowledge areas defined in project management body of knowledge (PMBOK).


Software Project Management Functional Size Measurement 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Fenton, N.E., Pfleeger, S.L.: Software Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach, 2nd edn. International Thomson Computer Press, Boston (1996)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Project Management Body of Knowledge, 3rd edn. Project Management Institute (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ISO/IEC IS 20968:2002: Software Engineering - MK II Function Point Analysis - Counting Practices Manual (2002) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    ISO/IEC IS 20926:2003: Software Engineering - IFPUG 4.1 Unadjusted Functional Size Measurement Method - Counting Practices Manual (2003) Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    ISO/IEC 19761:2003: Software Engineering - COSMIC-FFP: A Functional Size Measurement Method (2003) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    IEEE Std. 1490-2003 Adoption of PMI Standard - A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge –Description (2003) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Albrecht, A.J.: Measuring Application Development Productivity. In: Proc. Joint SHARE/GUIDE/IBM Application Development Symposium (1979)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Albrecht, A.J., Gaffney, J.E.: Software Function, Source Lines of Code, and Development Effort Prediction: A Software Science Validation. IEEE Trans. Software Eng. 9(6), 639–648 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gencel, C., Demirors, O.: Functional Size Measurement Revisited. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (July 2008) (to be published)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    ISO/IEC 14143-1:1998 Information Technology - Software Measurement - Functional Size Measurement - Part 1: Definition of Concepts (1998) Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    ISO/IEC 14143-2:2002: Information Technology - Software Measurement - Functional Size Measurement - Part 2: Conformity Evaluation of Software Size Measurement Methods to ISO/IEC 14143-1:1998 (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    ISO/IEC TR 14143-3:2003: Information Technology - Software Measurement - Functional Size Measurement - Part 3: Verification of Functional Size Measurement Methods (2003) Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ISO/IEC TR 14143-4:2002: Information Technology - Software Measurement - Functional Size Measurement - Part 4: Reference Model (2002) Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    ISO/IEC TR 14143-5:2004: Information Technology- Software Measurement - Functional Size Measurement - Part 5: Determination of Functional Domains for Use with Functional Size Measurement (2004) Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    ISO/IEC FCD 14143-6:2005: Guide for the Use of ISO/IEC 14143 and related International Standards (2005) Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    ISO/IEC IS 24570:2005: Software Engineering - NESMA functional size measurement method Ver.2.1 - Definitions and counting guidelines for the application of FPA (2005) Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abran, A.: Estimation Models for Software Maintenance Based on Functional Size. DoD SoftwareTech News 9(3) (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Abran, A., Silva, I., Primera, L.: Field studies using functional size measurement in building estimation models for software maintenance. Journal of Software Maintenance: Research and Practice 14(1) (2002)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Muller, R.J.: Earning Function Points in Software Projects. In: SM/ASM Conference (1999)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dekkers, T.: IT Governance requires performance measurement. In: PSQT/PSTT North Conference (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Buglione, L., Abran, A., Meli, R.: How Functional Size Measurement supports the Balanced Scorecard Framework for ICT, FESMA-DASMA (2001) Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rispens, M., Vogelezang, F.: Application Portfolio Management - The Basics - How much software do I have? In: Software Measurement European Forum-SMEF (2007)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Symons, C.: Come Back Function Point Analysis (Modernized) – All is Forgiven. In: Proc. of the 4th European Conference on Software Measurement and ICT Control, FESMA-DASMA 2001, pp. 413–426 (2001)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boehm, B.W., Abts, C., Brown, A.W., Chulani, S., Hall, B.K.: Software Cost Estimation with Cocomo II. Prentice Hall, NJ (2000)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Abran, A., Ndiaye, I., Bourque, P.: Contribution of Software Size in Effort Estimation. Research Lab. In: Software Engineering, École de Technologie Supérieure, Canada (2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kitchenham, B., Mendes, E.: Software Productivity Measurement Using Multiple Size Measures. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 30(12), 1023–1035 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Forselius, P.: Benchmarking Software-Development Productivity. IEEE Software 17(1), 80–88 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    ISBSG, International software benchmarking standards group,
  29. 29.
    Tran, C., Levesque, G.: Maintenance Effort and Cost Estimation Using Software Functional Sizes. In: IWSM (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rollo, T.: Functional Size Measurement and COCOMO – A Synergistic Approach. In: Proc. of Software Measurement European Forum (SMEF), Rome, Italy, pp. 259–267 (2006)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lokan, C.J.: An empirical analysis of function point adjustment factors. Information & Software Technology 42(9), 649–659 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jensen, R.: A Comparison of the Jensen and COCOMO Schedule and Cost Estimation Models. In: Proc. Int’l Society of Parametric Analysis, pp. 96–106 (1984)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nasir, M.: A Survey of Software Estimation Techniques and Project Planning Practices. In: SNPD, pp. 305–310 (2006)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Matson, J., Barrett, B., Mellichamp, J.: Software development cost estimation using function points. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 20(4), 275–287 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Meli, R.: The Software Measurement Role in a Complex Contractual Context, Software. In: Measurement European Forum, Rome, pp. 28–30 (2004)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lother, M., Dumke, R.: Points Metrics - Comparison and Analysis. In: International Workshop on Software Measurement (IWSM 2001), Montréal, Québec, pp. 155–172 (2001)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kitchenham, B., Fenton, N.: Towards a Framework for Software Measurement Validation. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 21(12) (1995)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Meli, R.: Functional Metrics: Problems and Possible Solutions, FESMA, Antwerpen (1998)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kitchenham, B.: The Problem with Function Points. IEEE Software 14(2), 29–31 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gencel, C., Demirors, O.: Conceptual Differences Among Functional Size Measurement Methods. In: Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM (2007)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Conte, M., Iorio, T., Meli, R., Santillo, L.: E&Q: An Early & Quick Approach to Functional Size Measurement Methods. In: Proc. of Software Measurement European Forum (SMEF), Rome, Italy (2004)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bock, D.B., Klepper, R.: FP-S: a simplified function point counting method. Journal of Systems and Software 18, 245–254 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Meli, R., Abran, A., Ho, V.T., Oligny, S.: On the Applicability of COSMIC-FFP for Measuring Software Throughout Its LifeCycle. Escom-Scope (2000)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Leung, H., Fan, Z.: Software Cost Estimation. Handbook of Software Engineering. Hong Kong Polytechnic University (2002)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Demirörs, O., Karagoz, N.A., Gencel, C.: Acquiring Innovative Software Systems: Experiences from the Field. In: EUROMICRO-SEAA, pp. 393–400 (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Baris Ozkan
    • 1
  • Oktay Turetken
    • 1
  • Onur Demirors
    • 1
  1. 1.Informatics InstituteMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations