Reasoning Web pp 104-124 | Cite as

Attempto Controlled English for Knowledge Representation

  • Norbert E. Fuchs
  • Kaarel Kaljurand
  • Tobias Kuhn
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5224)


Attempto Controlled English (ACE) is a controlled natural language, i.e. a precisely defined subset of English that can automatically and unambiguously be translated into first-order logic. ACE may seem to be completely natural, but is actually a formal language, concretely it is a first-order logic language with an English syntax. Thus ACE is human and machine understandable. ACE was originally intended to specify software, but has since been used as a general knowledge representation language in several application domains, most recently for the semantic web. ACE is supported by a number of tools, predominantly by the Attempto Parsing Engine (APE) that translates ACE texts into Discourse Representation Structures (DRS), a variant of first-order logic. Other tools include the Attempto Reasoner RACE, the AceRules system, the ACE View plug-in for the Protégé ontology editor, AceWiki, and the OWL verbaliser.


Knowledge Representation Noun Phrase Relative Clause Prepositional Phrase Interpretation Rule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norbert E. Fuchs
    • 1
  • Kaarel Kaljurand
    • 1
  • Tobias Kuhn
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Informatics & Institute of Computational LinguisticsUniversity of ZurichSwitzerland

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