Model Classifications and Automated Verification

  • Radek Pelánek
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4916)


Due to the significant progress in automated verification, there are often several techniques for a particular verification problem. In many circumstances different techniques are complementary — each technique works well for different type of input instances. Unfortunately, it is not clear how to choose an appropriate technique for a specific instance of a problem. In this work we argue that this problem, selection of a technique and tuning its parameter values, should be considered as a standalone problem (a verification meta-search). We propose several classifications of models of asynchronous system and discuss applications of these classifications in the context of explicit finite state model checking.


State Space Model Check Symmetry Reduction Strongly Connect Component Asynchronous System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ball, T., Majumdar, R., Millstein, T.D., Rajamani, S.K.: Automatic predicate abstraction of c programs. In: Proc. of Programming Language Design and Implementation (PLDI 2001), pp. 203–213. ACM Press, New York (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barnat, J., Brim, L., Cerná, I.: Cluster-based ltl model checking of large systems. In: de Boer, F.S., Bonsangue, M.M., Graf, S., de Roever, W.-P. (eds.) FMCO 2005. LNCS, vol. 4111, pp. 259–279. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barnat, J., Brim, L., Chaloupka, J.: Parallel breadth-first search LTL model-checking. In: Proc. Automated Software Engineering (ASE 2003), pp. 106–115. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Behrmann, G., Larsen, K.G., Pelánek, R.: To store or not to store. In: Hunt Jr., W.A., Somenzi, F. (eds.) CAV 2003. LNCS, vol. 2725. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blom, S., van de Pol, J.: State space reduction by proving confluence. In: Brinksma, E., Larsen, K.G. (eds.) CAV 2002. LNCS, vol. 2404, pp. 596–609. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Černá, I., Pelánek, R.: Distributed explicit fair cycle detection. In: Ball, T., Rajamani, S.K. (eds.) SPIN 2003. LNCS, vol. 2648, pp. 49–73. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cheng, A., Christensen, S., Mortensen, K.: Model checking coloured petri nets exploiting strongly connected components. Technical Report DAIMI PB – 519, Computer Science Department, University of Aarhus (1997)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Christensen, S., Kristensen, L.M., Mailund, T.: A Sweep-Line Method for State Space Exploration. In: Margaria, T., Yi, W. (eds.) ETAPS 2001 and TACAS 2001. LNCS, vol. 2031, pp. 450–464. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Clarke, E.M., Grumberg, O., Jha, S., Lu, Y., Veith, H.: Counterexample-guided abstraction refinement. In: Emerson, E.A., Sistla, A.P. (eds.) CAV 2000. LNCS, vol. 1855, pp. 154–169. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dwyer, M.B., Avrunin, G.S., Corbett, J.C.: Property specification patterns for finite-state verification. In: Proc. Workshop on Formal Methods in Software Practice, pp. 7–15. ACM Press, New York (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eytani, Y., Havelund, K., Stoller, S.D., Ur, S.: Toward a Framework and Benchmark for Testing Tools for Multi-Threaded Programs. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience 19(3), 267–279 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Flanagan, C., Godefroid, P.: Dynamic partial-order reduction for model checking software. In: Proc. of Principles of programming languages (POPL 2005), pp. 110–121. ACM Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Flanagan, C., Qadeer, S.: Thread-modular model checking. In: Ball, T., Rajamani, S.K. (eds.) SPIN 2003. LNCS, vol. 2648, pp. 213–224. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R., Vlissides, J.: Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. Addison-Wesley Professional, Reading (1995)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Geldenhuys, J.: State caching reconsidered. In: Graf, S., Mounier, L. (eds.) SPIN 2004. LNCS, vol. 2989, pp. 23–39. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Godefroid, P.: Partial-order methods for the verification of concurrent systems: An approach to the state-explosion problem. LNCS, vol. 1032. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Graf, S., Saidi, H.: Construction of abstract state graphs with pvs. In: Grumberg, O. (ed.) CAV 1997. LNCS, vol. 1254, pp. 72–83. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gulavani, B.S., Henzinger, T.A., Kannan, Y., Nori, A.V., Rajamani, S.K.: Synergy: A new algorithm for property checking. In: Proc. of Foundations of software engineering, pp. 117–127. ACM Press, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Holzmann, G.J.: State compression in SPIN: Recursive indexing and compression training runs. In: Proc. of SPIN Workshop (1997)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Holzmann, G.J.: The Spin Model Checker, Primer and Reference Manual. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts (2003)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Holzmann, G.J., Peled, D., Yannakakis, M.: On nested depth first search. In: Proc. SPIN Workshop, pp. 23–32. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI (1996)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ip, C.N., Dill, D.L.: Better verification through symmetry. Formal Methods in System Design 9(1–2), 41–75 (1996)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krčál, P.: Distributed explicit bounded ltl model checking. In: Proc. of Parallel and Distributed Methods in verifiCation (PDMC 2003). ENTCS, vol. 89. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kurshan, R.P., Levin, V., Yenigün, H.: Compressing transitions for model checking. In: Brinksma, E., Larsen, K.G. (eds.) CAV 2002. LNCS, vol. 2404, pp. 569–581. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lang, F.: Compositional verification using svl scripts. In: Katoen, J.-P., Stevens, P. (eds.) TACAS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2280, pp. 465–469. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lerda, F., Visser, W.: Addressing dynamic issues of program model checking. In: Dwyer, M.B. (ed.) SPIN 2001. LNCS, vol. 2057, pp. 80–102. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Milo, R., Itzkovitz, S., Kashtan, N., Levitt, R., Shen-Orr, S., Ayzenshtat, I., Sheffer, M., Alon, U.: Superfamilies of evolved and designed networks. Science 303(5663), 1538–1542 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Milo, R., Shen-Orr, S., Itzkovitz, S., Kashtan, N., Chklovskii, D., Alon, U.: Network motifs: Simple building blocks of complex networks. Science 298(5594), 824–827 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mony, H., Baumgartner, J., Paruthi, V., Kanzelman, R., Kuehlmann, A.: Scalable automated verification via expert-system guided transformations. In: Hu, A.J., Martin, A.K. (eds.) FMCAD 2004. LNCS, vol. 3312, pp. 159–173. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ozdemir, K., Ural, H.: Protocol validation by simultaneous reachability analysis. Computer Communications 20, 772–788 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pelánek, R.: Typical structural properties of state spaces. In: Graf, S., Mounier, L. (eds.) SPIN 2004. LNCS, vol. 2989, pp. 5–22. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pelánek, R.: Evaluation of on-the-fly state space reductions. In: Proc. of Mathematical and Engineering Methods in Computer Science (MEMICS 2005), pp. 121–127 (2005)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pelánek, R.: Reduction and Abstraction Techniques for Model Checking. PhD thesis, Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Brno (2006)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pelánek, R.: Web portal for benchmarking explicit model checkers. Technical Report FIMU-RS-2006-03, Masaryk University Brno (2006),
  35. 35.
    Pelánek, R.: Beem: Benchmarks for explicit model checkers. In: Bošnački, D., Edelkamp, S. (eds.) SPIN 2007. LNCS, vol. 4595, pp. 263–267. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pelánek, R., Hanžl, T., Černá, I., Brim, L.: Enhancing random walk state space exploration. In: Proc. of Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems (FMICS 2005), pp. 98–105. ACM Press, New York (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Penna, G.D., Intrigila, B., Melatti, I., Tronci, E., Zilli, M.V.: Exploiting transition locality in automatic verification of finite state concurrent systems. Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT) 6(4), 320–341 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ruys, T.C., Brinksma, E.: Managing the verification trajectory. International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT) 4(2), 246–259 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sahoo, D., Jain, J., Iyer, S.K., Dill, D., Emerson, E.A.: Predictive reachability using a sample-based approach. In: Borrione, D., Paul, W. (eds.) CHARME 2005. LNCS, vol. 3725, pp. 388–392. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sivaraj, H., Gopalakrishnan, G.: Random walk based heuristic algorithms for distributed memory model checking. In: Proc. of Parallel and Distributed Model Checking (PDMC 2003). ENTCS, vol. 89 (2003)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stern, U., Dill, D.L.: Using magnetic disk instead of main memory in the Murphi verifier. In: Y. Vardi, M. (ed.) CAV 1998. LNCS, vol. 1427, pp. 172–183. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vardi, M.Y., Wolper, P.: An automata-theoretic approach to automatic program verification. In: Kozen, D. (ed.) Proc. of Logic in Computer Science (LICS 1986), pp. 332–344. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (1986)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Radek Pelánek
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information Technologies, Faculty of InformaticsMasaryk University BrnoCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations