Hybrid Multiagent Systems with Timed Synchronization – Specification and Model Checking

  • Ulrich Furbach
  • Jan Murray
  • Falk Schmidsberger
  • Frieder Stolzenburg
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4908)


This paper shows how multiagent systems can be modeled by a combination of UML statecharts and hybrid automata. This allows formal system specification on different levels of abstraction on the one hand and expressing real-time system behavior with continuous variables on the other hand. It is shown, how multi-robot systems can be modeled by hybrid and hierarchical state machines and how model checking techniques for hybrid automata can be applied. An enhanced synchronization concept is introduced that allows synchronization taking time and avoids state explosion to a certain extent.


State Machine Model Check Multiagent System Time Synchronization Jump Condition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Arai, T., Stolzenburg, F.: Multiagent systems specification by UML statecharts aiming at intelligent manufacturing. In: Proceedings of 1st International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents & Multi-Agent Systems, pp. 11–18. ACM Press, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bernstein, T., et al.: HAL – hybrid automaton language. Team project description (in German), Department of Automation and Computer Sciences, Hochschule Harz (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clocksin, W.F., Mellish, C.S.: Programming in Prolog, 4th edn. Springer, Berlin (1994)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frehse, G.: PHAVer: Algorithmic verification of hybrid systems past HyTech. In: Morari, M., Thiele, L. (eds.) HSCC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3414, pp. 258–273. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Harel, D., Naamad, A.: The STATEMATE semantics of statecharts. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology 5(4), 293–333 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Henzinger, T.: The theory of hybrid automata. In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Symposium on Logic in Computer Science, pp. 278–292. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Henzinger, T.A., Ho, P.-H., Wong-Toi, H.: HyTech: The Next Generation. In: IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp. 56–65 (1995)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Henzinger, T.A., Majumdar, R.: Symbolic model checking for rectangular hybrid systems. In: Tools and Algorithms for Construction and Analysis of Systems, pp. 142–156 (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Murray, J.: Specifying agent behaviors with UML statecharts and StatEdit. In: Polani, D., Browning, B., Bonarini, A., Yoshida, K. (eds.) RoboCup 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3020, Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Murray, J., Stolzenburg, F.: Hybrid state machines with timed synchronization for multi-robot system specification. In: Bento, C., et al. (eds.) Proceedings of 12th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 236–241. IEEE Inc, Los Alamitos (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Murray, J., Stolzenburg, F., Arai, T.: Hybrid state machines with timed synchronization for multi-robot system specification. KI 3/06, 45–50 (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Object Management Group, Inc. UML Specification, Version 1.5 (March 2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Object Management Group, Inc. UML 2.0 Superstructure Specification (October 2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pnueli, A., Shalev, M.: What is in a step: On the semantics of statecharts. In: Ito, T., Meyer, A.R. (eds.) TACS 1991. LNCS, vol. 526, pp. 244–264. Springer, Heidelberg (1991)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rao, A.S., Georgeff, M.P.: BDI-agents: from theory to practice. In: Proceedings of the First Intl. Conference on Multiagent Systems, San Francisco (1995)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ruh, F.: A translator for cooperative strategies of mobile agents for four-legged robots. Master thesis, Dept. of Automation and Computer Sciences, Hochschule Harz (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stolzenburg, F.: Multiagent systems and RoboCup: Specification, analysis, and theoretical results. Habilitation, Universität Koblenz-Landau, Koblenz, Reviewers: Armin Cremers, Ulrich Furbach, and Klaus Troitzsch (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stolzenburg, F., Arai, T.: From the specification of multiagent systems by statecharts to their formal analysis by model checking: Towards safety-critical applications. In: Schillo, M., Klusch, M., Müller, J., Tianfield, H. (eds.) MATES 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2831, pp. 131–143. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tadokoro, S., et al.: The RoboCup-Rescue project: A robotic approach to the disaster mitigation problem. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2000), pp. 4089–4104 (2000)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrich Furbach
    • 1
  • Jan Murray
    • 1
  • Falk Schmidsberger
    • 2
  • Frieder Stolzenburg
    • 2
  1. 1.Artificial Intelligence Research GroupUniversität Koblenz-LandauKoblenz 
  2. 2.Automation and Computer Sciences DepartmentHochschule HarzWernigerode 

Personalised recommendations