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Vehicle and Road Automation

  • Yuko J. Nakanishi
Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SHB)

Abstract

Presently in the USA, Europe, Japan, and in other parts of the world, intelligent transportation system (ITS) technologies are being developed and deployed to increase the intelligence of vehicles. The two key benefits of these technologies are enhancement of safety and mobility of the traveling public. The intelligence is provided by electronics, communications systems, software, and human–machine interfaces and is assisting drivers with many aspects of the driving task. Drivers may be warned about potential crashes with other cars, about objects that are hidden from their vantage point, and about excessive speeds. Information about real-time traffic conditions including incidents on a driverʼs preferred route, travel times to specific destinations, and about restaurants, hotels, and other destination points may be provided. In-vehicle navigation systems can tell drivers how to get to a destination on a turn-by-turn basis and may be linked to a central dispatch center to summon help automatically in case of an accident.

The major initiatives and technologies being developed in the USA – integrated vehicle-based safety systems, forward collision warning systems, road departure crash warning systems, vehicle infrastructure integration – are described and discussed in this chapter. In addition, how they interact with the driver is important in terms of safety, liability, and acceptance of the technologies. The human factors elements that should be considered are presented and discussed in the chapter as well.

Keywords

Global Position System Warning System Intelligent Transportation System Driver Assistance System Advance Driver Assistance System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

3-D

three-dimensional

ACAS

aircraft collision avoidance system

ACAS

automotive collision avoidance system

ACC

adaptive cruise control

ACC

automatic computer control

ACN

automatic collision notification

ADAS

advanced driver assistance system

AHS

assisted highway system

AUTOSAR

automotive open system architecture

CAMP

collision avoidance metrics partnership

CAN

control area network

CAS

collision avoidance system

CAS

complex adaptive system

CCTV

closed circuit television

CD

compact disc

CHART

Maryland coordinated highways action response team

CNS

collision notification system

CNS

communication, navigation, and surveillance

CPU

central processing unit

CSW

curve speed warning system

DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DAS

driver assistance system

DC

direct-current

DMS

dynamic message sign

DOT

US Department of Transportation

DSRC

dedicated short-range communication

DVI

digital visual interface

FCW

forward collision warning

FCW

forward crash warning

GPS

global positioning system

HERO

highway emergency response operator

IPA

intelligent parking assist

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

ISO

independent system operator

ITS

intelligent transportation system

IVBSS

integrated vehicle-based safety system

IVI

Intelligent Vehicle Initiative

LCM

lane change/merge warning

LDW

lane departure warning

LDW

lateral drift warning system

LFAD

light-vehicle module for LCM, FCW, arbitration, and DVI

NHTSA

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

OEM

original equipment manufacturer

PSAP

public safety answering point

RDCW

road departure crash warning

ROM

range-of-motion

RPU

radar processing unit

SUV

sports utility vehicle

TA

traffic advisory

TMC

traffic management center

TMC

transport module controller

VICS

vehicle information and communication system

VII

vehicle infrastructure integration

VMT

vehicle miles of travel

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nakanishi Research and Consulting, LLCNew YorkUSA

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