The Biocontrol Effect of Mycorrhization on Soilborne Fungal Pathogens and the Autoregulation of the AM Symbiosis: One Mechanism, Two Effects?
The establishment of the AM in the roots of more than 80% of all land plants is the result of a complex exchange of signals between the host plant and AMF. Many reports are available that once the AMF has penetrated the host root and established its interradical organs of nutrient exchange between the AMF and the plant, a number of physiological and morphological changes occur in the host plant.
In recent years, it has been reported that once plants are colonized by AMF, further root colonization by AMF is regulated (reviewed by Vierheilig 2004a,b). In analogy to the rhizobial autoregulatory mechanism in legume plants, this phenomenon with AMF has been named “autoregulation of mycorrhization”. Recently, it has been suggested that the bioprotective effect of mycorrhization and the autoregulation of mycorrhization are possibly two sides of the same coin. It seems plausible that an already mycorrhizal plant develops just one mechanism to repulse further colonization by fungi, not discriminating between AMF and soilborne pathogenic fungi (Vierheilig and Piché 2002; Vierheilig 2004a,b).
KeywordsHydrogen Peroxide Phosphorus Maize Carbohydrate Germinate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Azcón-Aguilar C, Jaizme-Vega MC, Calvet C (2002) The contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to the control of soil-borne plant pathogens. In: Gianinazzi S, Schüepp H, Barea JM, Haselwandter K (eds) Mycorrhizal technology in agriculture. Birkhäuser, Switzerland, pp 187-197Google Scholar
- Berta G, Trotta A, Fusconi A, Hooker JE, Munro M, Atkinson D, Giovannetti M, Morini S, Fortuna P, Tisserant B, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Gianinazzi S (1995) Arbuscular mycorrhizal induced changes to plant growth and root system morphology in Prunus cerasifera. Tree Physiol 15:281-293PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Caron M, Fortin JA, Richard C (1986a) Effect of inoculation sequence on the interaction between Glomus intraradices and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in tomatoes. Can J Plant Pathol 8:12-16Google Scholar
- Garcia Garrido JM, Vierheilig H (2007) From a germinating spore to an established arbuscular mycorrhiza: signalling and regulation. In: Khasa D, Piché Y, Coughlan A (eds) Advances in mycorrhizal biotechnology: a Canadian perspective. NRC Research Press, Ottawa (in press)Google Scholar
- Harrison M, Dixon R (1993) Isoflavonoid accumulation and expression of defense gene transcripts during the establishment of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in roots of Medicago truncatula. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 6:643-659Google Scholar
- Hetrick BAD, Wilson GWT, Cox TS (1993) Mycorrhizal dependence of modern wheat cultivars and ancestors: a synthesis. Can J Bot 71:512-518Google Scholar
- Lackie SM, Garriock ML, Peterson RL, Bowley SR (1987) Influence of host plant on the morphology of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme (Daniels and Trappe) Berch. Symbiosis 3:147-158Google Scholar
- Lioussanne L, Jolicoeur M, St. Arnaud M (2003) Effects of the alteration of tomato root exudation by Glomus intraradices colonization on Phytophthora parasitica var. Nicotianae zoospores. Abstract No. 253, Abstract Book ICOM 4; Montreal/ CanadaGoogle Scholar
- Scheffknecht S, Mammerler R, Steinkellner S, Vierheilig H (2006) Root exudates of mycorrhizal tomato plants exhibit a different effect on microconidia germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici than root exudates from non-mycorrhizal tomato plants. Mycorrhiza 16:365-370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scheffknecht S, St-Arnaud M, Khaosaad T, Steinkellner S, Vierheilig H (2007) An altered root exudation pattern through mycorrhization affecting microconidia germination of the highly specialized tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) is not tomato specific but also occurs in Fol non-host plants. Can J Bot 85:347-351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Singh R, Adholeya A, Mukerji KG (2000) Mycorrhiza in control of soil-borne pathogens. In: Mukerji KG, Chamola BP, Singh J (eds.) Mycorrhizal biology. Kluwer, New York pp 173-196Google Scholar
- Smith S E, Read DJ (1997) Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic, London Sood SG (2003) Chemotactic response of plant-growth-promoting bacteria towards roots of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal tomato plants. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 45:219-227Google Scholar
- St-Arnaud M, Vujanovic V (2007) Effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on plant dis-eases and pests. In: Hamel C, Plenchette C (eds). Mycorrhizae in crop production: applying knowledge. Haworth, Binghampton, N.Y. (in press)Google Scholar
- St-Arnaud M, Hamel C, Vimard B, Caron M, Fortin JA (1995) Altered growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. chrysanthemi in an in vitro dual culture system with the vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices growing on Daucus carota transformed roots. Mycorrhiza 5:431-438Google Scholar
- Trotta A, Varese GC, Gnavi E, Fusconi A, Sampo S, Berta G (1996) Interactions between the soil-borne root pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae var. parasitica and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae in tomato plants. Plant Soil 185-209Google Scholar
- Vierheilig H, Piché Y (2002) Signalling in arbuscular mycorrhiza: facts and hypotheses. In: Buslig B, Manthey J (eds) Flavonoids in cell function. Kluwer, New York, pp 23-39Google Scholar
- Vierheilig H, Alt M, Mohr U, Boller T, Wiemken A (1994) Ethylene biosynthesis and activities of chitinase and ß-1,3-glucanase in the roots of host and non-host plants of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi after inoculation with Glomus mosseae. J Plant Physiol 143:337-343Google Scholar
- Xavier LJC, Boyetchko SM (2004) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plant disease control. In: Arora DK (ed) Fungal biotechnology in agricultural, food, and environmental applications. Dekker, New York, pp 183-194Google Scholar