In all communities, metropolitan, rural or regional, urinary retention can be defined as acute or chronic and occurs in both sexes. Ultimately, evaluation and treatment by an urologist or uro-gynaecologists in some female cases is required. In most cases, the initial management after history and examination confirms urinary retention is placement of an indwelling urinary catheter. This chapter will discuss acute and chronic urinary retention in males, if seeking information regarding female urinary retention an excellent summary can be found in female urology (S. Razz). In all cases, male and female consultation and referral to an urologist should result in further evaluation and treatment within a short time frame.
- Roehrborn, C.G., Boyle, P., Bergner, D., et al.: Serum prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume predict long-term changes in symptoms and flow rate: results of a four-year, randomized trial comparing finasteride versus placebo. PLESS Study Group. Urology 54, 662–669 (1999a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Surgically Sustained Injuries to the Urinary Tract
- Blaivas, J.G., Weiss, J.P. (eds.): Benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms. Urol. Clin. North Am. 36(4), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia (2009)Google Scholar
- Ras, S.: Female Urology, 2nd edn. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia (1996)Google Scholar
- Wein, A.J., Kavoussi, L.R., Novick, A.C., Partin, A.W., Peters, C.A.: Campbell – Walsh Urology, 9th edn. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia (2007)Google Scholar