Diverticulosis is a very common finding in most western societies, which affects approximately 12% of the population and has an increasing incidence with age. Only 5% of patients with diverticulosis require surgical treatment for the disease. Computed tomography allows for reliable diagnosis in almost all cases of diverticulitis and assists with treatment decisions. Conservative treatment is based on intravenous antibiotics (2nd generation cephalosporin or ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole) and liquid/low residue diet. Emergency surgery is needed for patients with free perforation and diffuse peritonitis, whereas early elective surgery should be offered if conservative measures fail to control symptoms of pericolic abscess formation or covered perforations. Surgical options include laparoscopic and open resections with and without reconstruction of the gastrointestinal passage as well as with and without covering stoma formation depending on the clinical situation as well as the surgeons' preferences.