The Heart: Anatomy, Physiology and Exercise Physiology

  • Syed Shah
  • Gopinath Gnanasegaran
  • Jeanette Sundberg-Cohon
  • John R. Buscombe

Abstract

The impact of anatomy on medicine was first recognised by Andreas Vesalius during the 16th century [1] and from birth to death, the heart is the most talked about organ of the human body. It is the centre of attraction for people from many lifestyles, such as philosophers, artists, poets and physicians/surgeons. The heart is one of the most efficient organs in the human body and heart disease is one of the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality in both developing and developed countries. Understanding the anatomy and pathophysiology is very important and challenging. With innovative changes in the imaging world, the perception of these has changed radically and applied anatomy and physiology plays an important role in understanding structure and function.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

References

  1. 1.
    Callahan JA, Kay JD (1991) Foundations of cardiology. In Giuliani ER et al. (eds), Cardiology Fundamentals and Practice, Vol. 1, 2nd edn. Mosby-Year Book, St Louis, pp. 3–25.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Edwards WD (1984) Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System; Clinical Medicine, Vol. 6. Harper & Row, Philadelphia, pp. 1–24.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Malouf JF, Edwards WD, Tajil AJ, Seward JB (2001) Functional anatomy of the heart. In Fuster F, Alexander RW, O’Rourke RA (eds), Hurst’s: The Heart, 10th edn. McGraw-Hill Inc., pp. 19–62.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boulpaep EL (2005) Organisation of Cardiovascular System. Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, updated version. Elsevier Saunders, pp. 423–507.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tortora GJ, Grabowski SR (1996) Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 8th edn. HarperCollins College Publishers, New York, pp. 598–600.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bullock J, Boyle J III, Wang MB (1991) Physiology, The National Medical Series for Independent Study, 2nd edn. Williams and Wilkins, pp. 93–148.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huff J (2002) ECG Workout Exercise in Arrhythmia Interpretation, 4th edn. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gray’s PG (1995) In Gray’s Anatomy, 38th edn. Churchill Livingston, New York, p.1498.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Edwards WD (1995) Cardiac anatomy and examination of cardiac specimens. In Emmanouilides G et al. (eds).Moss & Adams Heart Diseae in Infants, Children and Adolescents, 5th edn. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 70–105.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Edwards WD (1991) Applied anatomy of the heart. In Guiliani ER et al. Cardiology Fundamentals and Practice, Vol. 1, 2nd edn. Mosby-Year Book, St Louis, pp. 47–112.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thibodeau GA, Patton KT (1996) Anatomy of the cardiovascular system. In Anthony’s Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology, 15th edn, pp. 614–657.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ganong WF (2003) Lange Review of Medical Physiology, 21st edn. McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ganong WF (2005) Lange Review of Medical Physiology, 22nd edn. McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Widmaier EP, Raff H, Strang KT (2006) Cardiovascular physiology. In Vanders Human Physiology – The Mechanism of Body Function, 10th edn. McGraw-Hill, pp. 387–476.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Apkon M (2005) Cellular physiology of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle. In Boron WF, Boulpaep EL (eds), Medical Physiology. Elsevier Saunders, pp. 230–254. Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Edwards WD (1984) Anatomic basis for tomographic analysis of the heart at autopsy. Cardiol Clin 2:485–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Katz AM (2006) Physiology of the Heart, 4th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia..Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lederer WJ (2005) Cardiac electrophysiology and electrocardiogram. In Boron WF, Boulpaep EL (eds), Medical Physiology. Elsevier Saunders, updated version, pp. 483–507. Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Opie LH (2004) The Heart: Physiology, from Cell to Circulation, 4th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kurachi Y, Terzic A, Cohen M, Sperelakis N (2001) Heart Physiology and Pathophysiology, 4th edn. Academiv Press. Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Klocke FJ, Ellis AK (1990) Physiology of the coronary circulation. In Parmley WW, Chatterjee K (eds), Cardiology. Philadelphia:, JB Lippincott Co., pp.1–16.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Seward W (1994) Transoesophageal echocardiograhic anatomy. In Feeman W, Seward J et al. (eds), Transeosophageal Echocardiography. Little, Boaston, pp. 55–101. Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boulpaep EL (2005) Heart as a pump. In Boron WF, Boulpaep EL (eds), Medical Physiology. Elsevier Saunders, updated version, pp. 509–533.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boulpaep EL (2005) Regulation of arterial pressure and cardiac output. In Boron WF, Boulpaep EL (eds), Medical Physiology. Elsevier Saunders, updated version, pp. 534–557.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Porenta G, Cherry S, Czernin J, Brunken R, Kuhle W, Hashimoto T, Schelbert HR. (1999) Noninvasive determination of myocardial blood flow, oxygen consumption and efficiency in normal humans by carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography imaging. Eur J Nucl Med 26:1465–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pitkanen OP, Nuutila P, Raitakari OT et al. (1999) Coronary flow reserve in young men with familial combined hyperlipidemia. Circulation 99:1678–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maseri A et al. (2001) Coronary blood flow and myocardial ischaemia. In Fuster F, Alexander RW, O’Rourke RA (eds), Hurst’s: The Heart, 10th edn. McGraw-Hill, pp.1109–1131.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vassalli G, Hess OM (1998) Measurement of coronary flow reserve and its role in patient care. Basic Res Cardiol 93:339–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Braunwald E. (1999) 50th anniversary historical article. Myocardial oxygen consumption: the quest for its determinants and some clinical fallout.
J Am Coll Cardiol 34:1365–8. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fulton WFW (1965) The Coronary Arteries. Charles C. Thomson, Springfield IL. Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schwarz F, Flameng W, Ensslen R et al. (1978) Effects of collaterals. Am Heart J 95:570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Arani DT, Greene DG, Bunnell IL et al. (1984) Reductions in coronary flow under resting conditions in collateral-dependant myocardium of patients with complete occlusion left anterior descending coronary artery. J Am Coll Cardiol 3:668–2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch V (2006) The cardiovascular system. In Exercise Physiology – Energy, Nutrition, Human Preference, 6th edn. Lippincott, William and Wilkins, pp. 313–332. Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL (2006) Physical activity health and aging. In Exercise Physiology – Energy, Nutrition, Human Preference, 6th edn. Lippincott, William and Wilkins, pp. 883–924. Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wilmore JH, Costill DL (2004) Cardiovascular control during exercise. In Physiology of Sport and Exercise, 3rd edn. Human Kinetics, pp. 206–241.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Roberts RA, Roberts SO (1997) Factors contributing to fatigue during exercise. In Exercise Physiology (Exercise, Performance & Clinical Application), Mosby, pp. 546–563.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Roberts RA, Roberts SO (1997) Cardiovascular function and adaptation to exercise. In Exercise Physiology (Exercise, Performance & Clinical Application), Mosby, 268–293.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wilmore JH, Costill DL (2004) Cardiovascular and respiratory adaptations to training. In Physiology of Sport and Exercise, 3rd edn, Human Kinetics, pp. 270–305.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL (2006) Cardiology regulation integration. In Exercise Physiology – Energy, Nutrition, Human Preference, 6th edn. Lippincott, William and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Roberts RA, Roberts SO (1997) Gender and exercise performance. In Exercise Physiology (Exercise, Performance & Clinical Application), Mosby, pp. 564-577.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Roberts RA, Roberts SO (1997) Exercise and aging. In Exercise Physiology (Exercise, Performance & Clinical Application). Mosby, pp. 578–599.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wilmore JH, Costill DL (2004), Aging in sports and exercise. In Physiology of Sport and Exercise, 3rd edn, pp. 538–565.Google Scholar

Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Boron WF, Boulpaep E (2005) In Medical Physiology: a Cellular and Molecular Approach. Elsevier/Saunders, updated version, pp. 423–507.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thibodeau GA, Patton KT (1996) Anthony’s Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology, 15th edn. Mosby, pp. 614–657.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ganong WF (2003) Lange Review of Medical Physiology, 21st edn. McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gray’s Anatomy 38th edn (1995) Churchill Livingston, New York.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bullock J, Boyle J III, Wang MB (1991) Physiology, The National Medical Series for Independent Study, 2nd edn. Williams and Wilkins, pp. 93–148.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syed Shah
    • 1
  • Gopinath Gnanasegaran
    • 1
  • Jeanette Sundberg-Cohon
    • 1
  • John R. Buscombe
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Nuclear MedicineGuy’s & St. Thomas’ Hospital NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear MedicineRoyal Free HospitalLondonUK

Personalised recommendations