A Study of Implanted and Wearable Body Sensor Networks

  • Sana Ullah
  • Henry Higgin
  • M. Arif Siddiqui
  • Kyung Sup Kwak
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4953)


Recent advances in intelligent sensors, microelectronics and integrated circuit, system-on-chip design and low power wireless communication introduced the development of miniaturised and autonomous sensor nodes. These tiny sensor nodes can be deployed to develop a proactive Body Sensor Network (BSN). The rapid advancement in ultra low-power RF (radio frequency) technology enables invasive and non-invasive devices to communicate with a remote station. This communication revolutionizes healthcare system by enabling long term health monitoring of a patient and providing real time feedback to the medical experts. In this paper, we present In-body and On-body communication networks with a special focus on the methodologies of wireless communication between implanted medical devices with external monitoring equipment and recent technological growth in both areas. We also discuss about open issues and challenges in a BSN.


Body Sensor Network Wireless Body Area Network Implanted Communication Wearable Computing 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Borger, C., et al.: Health Spending Projections Through 2015: Changes on the Horizon. In: Health Affairs Web Exclusive W61 (February 22, 2006)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    Barroso, A., Benson, J., et al.: The DSYS25 sensor platform. In: Proceedings of the ACM sensys 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lo, B., Yang, G.Z.: Key Technical Challenges and Current Implementations of Body Sensor Networks. In: IEE Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Body Sensor Networks (BSN 2005), pp. 1–5 (April 2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Otto, C., Milenkovic, A., Sanders, C., Jovanov, E.: System Architecture of a Wireless Body Area Sensor Network for Ubiquitous Health Monitoring. Journal of Mobile Multimedia 1(4), 307–326 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lo, B., Atallah, L., Aziz, O., ElHelw, M., Darzi, A., Yang, G.Z.: Real time pervasive monitoring for post operative care. In: BSN 2007, Aachen, Germany (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lo, B., Yang, G.Z.: Architecture for Body Sensor Networks. In: IEE Proceedings of the Perspective in Pervasive Computing, October 25, 2005, pp. 23–28 (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Milenkovic, A., Otto, C., Jovanov, E.: Wireless Sensor Networks for Personal Health Monitoring: Issues and an Implementation. Computer Communications 29, 2521–2533 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sivard, A., Bradlet, P., et al.: The challenge of designing in-body communications, Embedded Systems Desing 10/26/04, 05:16 PM EDTGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
    Finkenzeller, K.: RFID Handbook, 2nd edn. Wiley International, Chichester (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    MICS Band. Australian Communications Agency Paper SP 6/03 (October 2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yang, et al.: Body Sensor Networks. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kraus, J.D.: Antennas, 2nd edn. McGraw Hill, New York (1988)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee, F.L., Wei, C.: Microstrip and Printed Antennas, 1st edn. Wiley, Chichester (1997)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fujimoto, K., Henderson, A., Hirasawa, K., James, J.R.: Small Antennas, 1987 Research Studies Press, 16 Coach House Cloisters, 10 Hitchin Street, Baldok, Hertfordshire, SG7 6AE, UK (1987)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krall, A.D., McCorkle, J.M., Scarzello, J.F., Syeles, A.M.: The Omni Microstrip Antenna: A New Small Antenna. IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation AP27, 850–853 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jovanov, E., Milenkovic, A., Otto, C., de Groen, P.: A wireless body area network of intelligent motion sensors for computer assisted physical rehabilitation. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2(6) (March 1, 2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
    Ryckaert, J., Fort, A., Gyselinckx, B.: Ultra-wideband communication for wireless body area networks. In: International Workshop on UWB Technologies - IWUWBT (2005)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
    Zasowski, T., Althaus, F., Stager, M., Wittneben, A., Troster, G.: Uwb for non invasive wireless body area networks:channel measurements and results. In: IEEE Conference on Ultra Wideband Systems and Technologies, UWBST 2003, Reston, Virginia, USA (November 2003)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Winnem, O.M., Walderhaug, S.: TeleMediCare Project, SINTEF Telecom and Informatics (2002)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ouchi, K., Suzuki, T., Doi, M.: LifeMinder: A Wearable Healthcare Support System Using User’s Context. In: Proceedings of the 22nd ICDCSW 2002 (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kim, S.: Ubiquitous Healthcare: The OnkoNet Mobile Agents Architecture, NODe, pp. 265–277 (2003)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kang, E., Im, Y., Kim, U.: Remote Control Multi-Agent System for u-Healthcare Service. In: Nguyen, N.T., Grzech, A., Howlett, R.J., Jain, L.C. (eds.) KES-AMSTA 2007. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4496, pp. 636–644. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lo, B., Yang, G.Z.: Key Technical Challenges and Current Implementations of Body Sensor Networks. In: IEE Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Body Sensor Networks (BSN 2005), April 2005, pp. 1–5 (2005)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
    Hsieh, M.C., Fang, Y.K., Ju, M.S., Chen, G.S., Ho, J.J., Yang, C.H., Wu, P.M., Wu, G.S., Chen, T.Y.: A BioMEMS Review: MEMS Technology for Physiologically Integrated Devices. J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10, 121–127Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yeatman, E.M.: Advances In Power Sources For Wireless Sensor Nodes. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks, April 6-7 (2004)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
    Dokovsky, N., van Halteren, A., Widya, I.: BANip: enabling remote healthcare monitoring with Body Area Networks. In: Guelfi, N., Astesiano, E., Reggio, G. (eds.) FIDJI 2003. LNCS, vol. 2952, pp. 62–72. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Braem, B., Latre, B., Moerman, I., Blondia, C., Demeester, P.: The Wireless Autonomous Spanning tree Protocol for multihop wireless body area networks. In: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Personalized Networks, ICST, San Jose, California, USA (2006)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Latre, B., Braem, B., Moerman, I., Blondia, C., Reusens, E., Joseph, W., Demeester, P.: A Low-delay Protocol for Multihop Wireless Body Area Networks, Ghent University IMECGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sana Ullah
    • 1
  • Henry Higgin
    • 2
  • M. Arif Siddiqui
    • 1
  • Kyung Sup Kwak
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Telecommunication EngineeringInha University IncheonNam-GuSouth Korea
  2. 2.Zarlink Semiconductor CompanyCaldicotUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations