Diagnostic Information for Realizability

  • A. Cimatti
  • M. Roveri
  • V. Schuppan
  • A. Tchaltsev
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4905)


Realizability – checking whether a specification can be implemented by an open system – is a fundamental step in the design flow. However, if the specification turns out not to be realizable, there is no method to pinpoint the causes for unrealizability. In this paper, we address the open problem of providing diagnostic information for realizability: we formally define the notion of (minimal) explanation of (un)realizability, we propose algorithms to compute such explanations, and provide a preliminary experimental evaluation.


Model Check Activation Variable Diagnostic Information Propositional Formula Explicit Algorithm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abadi, M., Lamport, L., Wolper, P.: Realizable and unrealizable specifications of reactive systems. In: Ronchi Della Rocca, S., Ausiello, G., Dezani-Ciancaglini, M. (eds.) ICALP 1989. LNCS, vol. 372, pp. 1–17. Springer, Heidelberg (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    European Railway Agency. Feasibility study for the formal specification of ETCS functions. Sep, Invitation to tender (2007),
  3. 3.
    Behrmann, G., et al.: UPPAAL-Tiga: Time for playing games! In: Damm and Hermanns [11], pp. 121–125.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bloem, R., et al.: RAT: Formal analysis of requirements. In: Damm and Hermanns [11], pp. 263–267.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bloem, R., et al.: Interactive presentation: Automatic hardware synthesis from specifications: A case study. In: Lauwereins, R., Madsen, J. (eds.) DATE, pp. 1188–1193. ACM Press, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bontemps, Y., Schobbens, P., Löding, C.: Synthesis of open reactive systems from scenario-based specifications. Fundam. Inform. 62(2), 139–169 (2004)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clarke, E., et al.: NuSMV: A new symbolic model verifier. In: Halbwachs, N., Peled, D.A. (eds.) CAV 1999. LNCS, vol. 1633, pp. 495–499. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cimatti, A., et al.: Diagnostic information for realizability. Technical Report FBK-092007-01, Fondazione Bruno Kessler (2007),
  9. 9.
    Cimatti, A., et al.: Boolean abstraction for temporal logic satisfiability. In: Damm and Hermanns [11], pp. 532–546Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Clarke, E., Veith, H.: Counterexamples Revisited: Principles, Algorithms, Applications. In: Dershowitz, N. (ed.) Verification: Theory and Practice. LNCS, vol. 2772, pp. 208–224. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Damm, W., Hermanns, H. (eds.): CAV 2007. LNCS, vol. 4590. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Groce, A.: Error Explanation and Fault Localization with Distance Metrics. PhD thesis, Carnegie Mellon University (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lynce, I., Marques Silva, J.: On computing minimum unsatisfiable cores. In: SAT (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pill, I., et al.: Formal analysis of hardware requirements. In: Sentovich, E. (ed.) DAC, pp. 821–826. ACM Press, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pnueli, A., Piterman, N., Sa’ar, Y.: Synthesis of Reactive(1) Designs. In: Emerson, E.A., Namjoshi, K.S. (eds.) VMCAI 2006. LNCS, vol. 3855, pp. 364–380. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pnueli, A., Rosner, R.: On the synthesis of a reactive module. In: 16th Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, pp. 179–190 (1989)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Safra, S.: On the complexity of omega-automata. In: FOCS, pp. 319–327. IEEE, Los Alamitos (1988)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tripakis, S., Altisen, K.: On-the-Fly Controller Synthesis for Discrete and Dense-Time Systems. In: Wing, J.M., Woodcock, J.C.P., Davies, J. (eds.) FM 1999. LNCS, vol. 1708, Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
    Yoshiura, N.: Finding the causes of unrealizability of reactive system formal specifications. In: SEFM, pp. 34–43. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Cimatti
    • 1
  • M. Roveri
    • 1
  • V. Schuppan
    • 2
  • A. Tchaltsev
    • 1
  1. 1.Fondazione Bruno Kessler — IRSTPovo (TN)Italy
  2. 2.Verimag/CNRSGièresFrance

Personalised recommendations