Checking Temporal Properties of Discrete, Timed and Continuous Behaviors

  • Oded Maler
  • Dejan Nickovic
  • Amir Pnueli
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4800)


We survey some of the problems associated with checking whether a given behavior (a sequence, a Boolean signal or a continuous signal) satisfies a property specified in an appropriate temporal logic and describe two such monitoring algorithms for the real-time logic MITL.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abarbanel, Y., et al.: FoCs: Automatic Generation of Simulation Checkers from Formal Specifications. In: Emerson, E.A., Sistla, A.P. (eds.) CAV 2000. LNCS, vol. 1855, pp. 538–542. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alur, R., Dill, D.L.: A Theory of Timed Automata. Theoretical Computer Science 126, 183–235 (1994)MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alur, R., Feder, T., Henzinger, T.A.: The Benefits of Relaxing Punctuality. Journal of the ACM 43, 116–146 (1996)MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alur, R., Henzinger, T.A.: Logics and Models of Real-Time: A Survey. In: Huizing, C., et al. (eds.) REX 1991. LNCS, vol. 600, pp. 74–106. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Asarin, E.: Challenges in Timed Languages. Bulletin of EATCS 83 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asarin, E., Caspi, P., Maler, O.: Timed Regular Expressions. The Journal of the ACM 49, 172–206 (2002)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Beer, I., et al.: The Temporal Logic Sugar. In: Berry, G., Comon, H., Finkel, A. (eds.) CAV 2001. LNCS, vol. 2102, Springer, Heidelberg (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bensalem, S., et al.: Testing Conformance of Real-time Applications with Automatic Generation of Observers. In: RV 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Donzé, A.: Etude d’un Modèle de Contrôleur Hybride. Master’s thesis, INPG (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eisner, C., Fisman, D.: A Practical Introduction to PSL. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eisner, C., et al.: Reasoning with Temporal Logic on Truncated Paths. In: Hunt Jr., W.A., Somenzi, F. (eds.) CAV 2003. LNCS, vol. 2725, pp. 27–39. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Geilen, M.C.W., Dams, D.R.: An On-the-fly Tableau Construction for a Real-time Temporal Logic. In: Joseph, M. (ed.) FTRTFT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1926, pp. 276–290. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Geilen, M.C.W.: Formal Techniques for Verification of Complex Real-time Systems, PhD thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Geilen, M.C.W.: An Improved On-the-fly Tableau Construction for a Real-time Temporal Logic. In: Hunt Jr., W.A., Somenzi, F. (eds.) CAV 2003. LNCS, vol. 2725, pp. 394–406. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Havelund, K., Rosu, G. (eds.): Runtime Verification RV 2002. ENTCS 70(4) (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Havelund, K., Rosu, G.: Synthesizing Monitors for Safety Properties. In: Katoen, J.-P., Stevens, P. (eds.) ETAPS 2002 and TACAS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2280, pp. 342–356. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Henzinger, T.A.: It’s about Time: Real-time Logics Reviewed. In: Sangiorgi, D., de Simone, R. (eds.) CONCUR 1998. LNCS, vol. 1466, pp. 439–454. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hirshfeld, Y., Rabinovich, A.: Logics for Real Time: Decidability and Complexity. Fundamenta Informaticae 62, 1–28 (2004)MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kesten, Y., Pnueli, A.: A Compositional Approach to CTL* Verification. Theoretical Computer Science 331, 397–428 (2005)MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kossentini C., Caspi, P.: Approximation, Sampling and Voting in Hybrid Computing Systems, HSCC (to appear, 2006)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koymans, R.: Specifying Real-time Properties with with Metric Temporal Logic. Real-time Systems, 255–299 (1990)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim, M., et al.: Monitoring, Checking, and Steering of Real-time Systems. RV 2002, ENTCS 70(4) (2002)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kristoffersen, K.J., Pedersen, C., Andersen, H.R.: Runtime Verification of Timed LTL using Disjunctive Normalized Equation Systems. RV 2003 ENTCS 89(2) (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Krichen, M., Tripakis, S.: Black-box Conformance Testing for Real-time Systems. In: Graf, S., Mounier, L. (eds.) SPIN 2004. LNCS, vol. 2989, pp. 109–126. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kupferman, O., Vardi, M.Y.: On Bounded Specifications. In: Nieuwenhuis, R., Voronkov, A. (eds.) LPAR 2001. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2250, pp. 24–38. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mosterman, P.J.: An Overview of Hybrid Simulation Phenomena and their Support by Simulation Packages. In: Vaandrager, F.W., van Schuppen, J.H. (eds.) HSCC 1999. LNCS, vol. 1569, pp. 165–177. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lichtenstein, O., Pnueli, A., Zuck, L.D.: The Glory of the Past. In: LCTES 2000. LNCS, pp. 196–218 (1985)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maler, O.: A Unified Approach for Studying Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems. In: CDC, pp. 2083–2088. IEEE, Los Alamitos (1998)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maler, O.: Control from Computer Science. Annual Reviews in Control 26, 175–187 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maler, O.: Analog Circuit Verification: a State of an Art. ENTCS 153, 3–7 (2006)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maler, O., Nickovic, D.: Monitoring Temporal Properties of Continuous Signals. In: Lakhnech, Y., Yovine, S. (eds.) FORMATS 2004 and FTRTFT 2004. LNCS, vol. 3253, pp. 152–166. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Maler, O., Nickovic, D., Pnueli, A.: Real Time Temporal Logic: Past, Present, Future. In: Pettersson, P., Yi, W. (eds.) FORMATS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3829, pp. 2–16. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Maler, O., Nickovic, D., Pnueli, A.: From MITL to Timed Automata. In: Asarin, E., Bouyer, P. (eds.) FORMATS 2006. LNCS, vol. 4202, pp. 274–289. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Maler, O., Nickovic, D., Pnueli, A.: On Synthesizing Controllers from Bounded-Response Properties. In: Damm, W., Hermanns, H. (eds.) CAV 2007. LNCS, vol. 4590, pp. 95–107. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Manna, Z., Pnueli, A.: The Temporal Logic of Reactive and Concurrent Systems - Specification. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Manna, Z., Pnueli, A.: Temporal Verification of Reactive Systems: Safety. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nickovic, D., Maler, O.: AMT: A Property-Based Monitoring Tool for Analog Systems. In: Raskin, J.-F., Thiagarajan, P.S. (eds.) FORMATS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4763, pp. 304–319. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Safra, S.: On the Complexity of ω-Automata. In: FOCS 1988, pp. 319–327 (1988)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sokolsky, O., Viswanathan, M.(eds.): Runtime Verification RV 2003. ENTCS 89(2) (2003)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Trakhtenbrot, B.A.: Finite Automata and the Logic of One-place Predicates. DAN SSSR 140 (1961)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Thati, P., Rosu, G.: Monitoring Algorithms for Metric Temporal Logic Specifications. RV (2004)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tripakis, S.: Fault Diagnosis for Timed Automata. In: Damm, W., Olderog, E.-R. (eds.) FTRTFT 2002. LNCS, vol. 2469, pp. 205–224. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vardi, M.Y., Wolper, P.: An Automata-theoretic Approach to Automatic Program Verification. In: LICS 1986, pp. 322–331. IEEE, Los Alamitos (1986)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oded Maler
    • 1
  • Dejan Nickovic
    • 1
  • Amir Pnueli
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.VerimagGièresFrance
  2. 2.Weizmann Institute of ScienceRehovotIsrael
  3. 3.New York UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations