Linking Data to Ontologies

  • Antonella Poggi
  • Domenico Lembo
  • Diego Calvanese
  • Giuseppe De Giacomo
  • Maurizio Lenzerini
  • Riccardo Rosati
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4900)


Many organizations nowadays face the problem of accessing existing data sources by means of flexible mechanisms that are both powerful and efficient. Ontologies are widely considered as a suitable formal tool for sophisticated data access. The ontology expresses the domain of interest of the information system at a high level of abstraction, and the relationship between data at the sources and instances of concepts and roles in the ontology is expressed by means of mappings. In this paper we present a solution to the problem of designing effective systems for ontology-based data access. Our solution is based on three main ingredients. First, we present a new ontology language, based on Description Logics, that is particularly suited to reason with large amounts of instances. The second ingredient is a novel mapping language that is able to deal with the so-called impedance mismatch problem, i.e., the problem arising from the difference between the basic elements managed by the sources, namely data, and the elements managed by the ontology, namely objects. The third ingredient is the query answering method, that combines reasoning at the level of the ontology with specific mechanisms for both taking into account the mappings and efficiently accessing the data at the sources.


Logic Program Resource Description Framework Logic Programming Link Data Description Logic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abiteboul, S., Hull, R., Vianu, V.: Foundations of Databases. Addison Wesley Publ. Co, Reading (1995)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Acciarri, A., Calvanese, D., De Giacomo, G., Lembo, D., Lenzerini, M., Palmieri, M., Rosati, R.: QuOnto: Querying ontologies. In: AAAI 2005. Proc. of the 20th Nat. Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 1670–1671 (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baader, F., Brandt, S., Lutz, C.: Pushing the \(\mathcal{EL}\) envelope. In: IJCAI 2005. Proc. of the 19th Int. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 364–369 (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baader, F., Calvanese, D., McGuinness, D., Nardi, D., Patel-Schneider, P.F. (eds.): The Description Logic Handbook: Theory, Implementation and Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2003)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barrasa, J., Corcho, O., Gomez-Perez, A.: R2O, an extensible and semantically based database-to-ontology mapping language. In: WebDB 2004. Proc. of the 7th Int. Workshop on the Web and Databases (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Calvanese, D., De Giacomo, G., Lembo, D., Lenzerini, M., Rosati, R.: DL-Lite: Tractable description logics for ontologies. In: AAAI 2005. Proc. of the 20th Nat. Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 602–607 (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Calvanese, D., De Giacomo, G., Lembo, D., Lenzerini, M., Rosati, R.: Data complexity of query answering in description logics. In: KR 2006. Proc. of the 10th Int. Conf. on the Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, pp. 260–270 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Calvanese, D., De Giacomo, G., Lembo, D., Lenzerini, M., Rosati, R.: Tractable reasoning and efficient query answering in description logics: The DL-Lite family. J. of Automated Reasoning (to appear, 2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Calvanese, D., De Giacomo, G., Lenzerini, M., Nardi, D., Rosati, R.: Data integration in data warehousing. Int. J. of Cooperative Information Systems 10(3), 237–271 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Donini, F.M., Lenzerini, M., Nardi, D., Schaerf, A.: Deduction in concept languages: From subsumption to instance checking. J. of Logic and Computation 4(4), 423–452 (1994)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goasdoue, F., Lattes, V., Rousset, M.-C.: The use of CARIN language and algorithms for information integration: The Picsel system. Int. J. of Cooperative Information Systems 9(4), 383–401 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grosof, B.N., Horrocks, I., Volz, R., Decker, S.: Description logic programs: Combining logic programs with description logic. In: WWW 2003. Proc. of the 12th Int. World Wide Web Conf, pp. 48–57 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Heflin, J., Hendler, J.: A portrait of the Semantic Web in action. IEEE Intelligent Systems 16(2), 54–59 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Horrocks, I., Patel-Schneider, P.F., van Harmelen, F.: From \(\mathcal{SHIQ}\) and RDF to OWL: The making of a web ontology language. J. of Web Semantics 1(1), 7–26 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hull, R.: A survey of theoretical research on typed complex database objects. In: Paredaens, J. (ed.) Databases, pp. 193–256. Academic Press, London (1988)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hull, R., Yoshikawa, M.: ILOG: Declarative creation and manipulation of object identifiers. In: VLDB 1990. Proc. of the 16th Int. Conf. on Very Large Data Bases, pp. 455–468 (1990)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hustadt, U., Motik, B., Sattler, U.: Data complexity of reasoning in very expressive description logics. In: IJCAI 2005. Proc. of the 19th Int. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 466–471 (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Komorowski, H.J.: A specification of an abstract Prolog machine and its application to partial evaluation. Technical Report LSST 69, Linköping University (1981)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lenzerini, M.: Data integration: A theoretical perspective. In: PODS 2002. Proc. of the 21st ACM SIGACT SIGMOD SIGART Symp. on Principles of Database Systems, pp. 233–246 (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lloyd, J.W.: Foundations of Logic Programming, 2nd edn. Springer, Heidelberg (1987)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lloyd, J.W., Shepherdson, J.C.: Partial evaluation in logic programming. J. of Logic Programming 11, 217–242 (1991)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lutz, C.: Description logics with concrete domains: A survey. In: Balbiani, P., Suzuki, N.-Y., Wolter, F., Zakharyaschev, M. (eds.) Advances in Modal Logics, vol. 4, King’s College Publications (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mädche, A., Motik, B., Silva, N., Volz, R.: MAFRA – a mapping framework for distributed ontologies. In: Gómez-Pérez, A., Benjamins, V.R. (eds.) EKAW 2002. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2473, pp. 235–250. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meseguer, J., Qian, X.: A logical semantics for object-oriented databases. In: Proc. of the ACM SIGMOD Int. Conf. on Management of Data, pp. 89–98 (1993)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Minker, J.: A logic-based approach to data integration. Theory and Practice of Logic Programming 2(3), 293–321 (2002)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ortiz, M.M., Calvanese, D., Eiter, T.: Characterizing data complexity for conjunctive query answering in expressive description logics. In: AAAI 2006. Proc. of the 21st Nat. Conf. on Artificial Intelligence (2006)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Poggi, A.: Structured and Semi-Structured Data Integration. PhD thesis, Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica, Università di Roma La Sapienza (2006)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reiter, R.: On closed world data bases. In: Gallaire, H., Minker, J. (eds.) Logic and Databases, pp. 119–140. Plenum Publ. Co, New York (1978)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Scharffe, F., de Bruijn, J.: A language to specify mappings between ontologies. In: SITIS 2005. Proc. of the 1st Int. Conf. on Signal-Image Technology and Internet-Based Systems, pp. 267–271 (2005)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Serafini, L., Tamilin, A.: DRAGO: Distributed reasoning architecture for the Semantic Web. In: Gómez-Pérez, A., Euzenat, J. (eds.) ESWC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3532, pp. 361–376. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vardi, M.Y.: The complexity of relational query languages. In: STOC 1982. Proc. of the 14th ACM SIGACT Symp. on Theory of Computing, pp. 137–146 (1982)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonella Poggi
    • 1
  • Domenico Lembo
    • 1
  • Diego Calvanese
    • 2
  • Giuseppe De Giacomo
    • 1
  • Maurizio Lenzerini
    • 1
  • Riccardo Rosati
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Informatica e SistemisticaUniversità di Roma “La Sapienza”RomaItaly
  2. 2.Faculty of Computer ScienceFree University of Bozen-BolzanoBolzanoItaly

Personalised recommendations