Bingo Voting: Secure and Coercion-Free Voting Using a Trusted Random Number Generator

  • Jens-Matthias Bohli
  • Jörn Müller-Quade
  • Stefan Röhrich
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4896)


It is debatable if current direct-recording electronic voting machines can sufficiently be trusted for a use in elections. Reports about malfunctions and possible ways of manipulation abound. Voting schemes have to fulfill seemingly contradictory requirements: On one hand the election process should be verifiable to prevent electoral fraud and on the other hand each vote should be deniable to avoid coercion and vote buying.

This work presents a new verifiable and coercion-free voting scheme Bingo Voting, which is based on a trusted random number generator. As a motivation for the new scheme two coercion/vote buying attacks on voting schemes are presented which show that it can be dangerous to let the voter contribute randomness to the voting scheme.

A proof-of-concept implementation of the scheme shows the practicality of the scheme: all costly computations can be moved to a non time critical pre-voting phase.


Secure electronic voting coercion-free receipt-free 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    University of California: Reports of top-to-bottom review of voting machines (2007),
  2. 2.
    Gonggrijp, R., Hengeveld, W.J., Bogk, A., Engling, D., Mehnert, H., Rieger, F., Scheffers, P., Wels, B.: Nedap/Groenendaal ES3 voting computer – a security analysis (2006),
  3. 3.
    Pedersen, T.P.: Non-interactive and Information-Theoretic Secure Verifiable Secret Sharing. In: Feigenbaum, J. (ed.) CRYPTO 1991. LNCS, vol. 576, pp. 129–140. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Neff, C.A.: Practical high certainty intent verification for encrypted votes (2004),
  5. 5.
    Reynolds, D.J.: A method for electronic voting with Coercion-free receipt. In: FEE 2005 (2005),
  6. 6.
    Moran, T., Naor, M.: Receipt-Free Universally-Verifiable Voting With Everlasting Privacy. In: Dwork, C. (ed.) CRYPTO 2006. LNCS, vol. 4117, pp. 373–392. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chaum, D.: Punchscan (2006),
  8. 8.
    Adida, B., Neff, C.A.: Ballot Casting Assurance. In: EVT 2006. Proceedings of the First Usenix/ACCURATE Electronic Voting Technology Workshop, Vancouver, BC, Canada (August 1, 2006),
  9. 9.
    Rivest, R.L.: The ThreeBallot Voting System (2006),
  10. 10.
    Popoveniuc, S., Hosp, B.: An Introduction to Punchscan. In: VSRW 2006. Threat Analyses for Voting System Categories, A Workshop on Rating Voting Methods (2006),
  11. 11.
    Popoveniuc, S., Hosp, B.: An Introduction to Punchscan. In: IAVoSS Workshop On Trustworthy Elections, WOTE 2006 (2006),
  12. 12.
    Chaum, D., Ryan, P.Y., Schneider, S.: A Practical Voter-Verifiable Election Scheme. In: di Vimercati, S.d.C., Syverson, P.F., Gollmann, D. (eds.) ESORICS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3679, pp. 118–139. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Adida, B., Rivest, R.L.: Scratch & Vote: Self-Contained Paper-Based Cryptographic Voting. In: WPES 2006. Proceedings of the 5th ACM workshop on Privacy in electronic society, pp. 29–40. ACM Press, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Benaloh, J.: Simple Verifiable Elections. In: EVT 2006. Proceedings of the First Usenix/ACCURATE Electronic Voting Technology Workshop, Vancouver, BC, Canada (August 1, 2006),
  15. 15.
    Jakobsson, M., Juels, A., Rivest, R.L.: Making Mix Nets Robust For Electronic Voting By Randomized Partial Checking. In: USENIX Security Symposium, pp. 339–353 (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chaum, D.: Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses, and Digital Pseudonyms. Communications of the ACM 24, 84–88 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sun Microsystems: Java Platform, Standard Edition (2006),
  18. 18.
    Karlof, C., Sastry, N., Wagner, D.: Cryptographic Voting Protocols: A Systems Perspective. In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 2005), pp. 33–50 (2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ryan, P.Y.A., Peacock, T.: Prêt à Voter: a Systems Perspective. Technical Report CS-TR-929, School of Computing Science, University of Newcastle (2005),

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jens-Matthias Bohli
    • 1
  • Jörn Müller-Quade
    • 2
  • Stefan Röhrich
    • 2
  1. 1.Network Research DivisionNEC Laboratories EuropeHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Algorithmen und Kognitive Systeme / E.I.S.S.Universität Karlsruhe (TH)Germany

Personalised recommendations