Simulation and Formal Analysis of Visual Attention in Cognitive Systems

  • Tibor Bosse
  • Peter-Paul van Maanen
  • Jan Treur
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4840)


In this paper a simulation model for visual attention is discussed and formally analysed. The model is part of the design of a cognitive system which comprises an agent that supports a naval officer in its task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in which the model is used to simulate a human subject’s attention. The formal analysis is based on temporal relational specifications for attentional states and for different stages of attentional processes. The model has been automatically verified against these specifications.


Visual Attention Cognitive System Attentional Process Attentional State Attention Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baars, B.J.: A cognitive theory of consciousness. Cambridge University Press, London (1988)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bainbridge, L.: Ironies of automation. Automatica 19, 775–779 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bickhard, M.H.: Representational Content in Humans and Machines. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 5, 285–333 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bosse, T., Jonker, C.M., van der Meij, L., Sharpanskykh, A., Treur, J.: Specification and Verification of Dynamics in Cognitive Agent Models. In: Nishida, T., Klusch, M., Sycara, K., Yokoo, M., Liu, J., Wah, B., Cheung, W., Cheung, Y.-M. (eds.) IAT 2006. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology, pp. 247–254. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bosse, T., van Maanen, P.-P., Treur, J.: A Cognitive Model for Visual Attention and its Application. In: Nishida, T. (ed.) IAT 2006. Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology, pp. 255–262. IEEE Computer Society Press, Hong Kong, P.R. China (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bosse, T., van Maanen, P.-P., Treur, J.: Temporal Differentiation of Attentional Processes. In: Vosniadou, S., Kayser, D. (eds.) EuroCogSci. 2007. Proceedings of the Second European Cognitive Science Conference, Delphi. Greece (in press)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Broadbent, D.E.: Perception and Communication. Pergamon Press, London (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Campbell, G., Cannon-Bowers, J., Glenn, F., Zachary, W., Laughery, R., Klein, G.: Dynamic function allocation in the SC-21 Manning Initiative Program. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Orlando, SC-21/ONRS&T Manning Affordability Initiative (1997)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carpenter, R.H.S.: Movements of the Eyes, Pion, London (1988)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Castelfranchi, C., Lorini, E.: Cognitive Anatomy and Functions of Expectations. In: Proc. of IJCAI 2003 Workshop on Cognitive modeling of agents and multi-agent interaction, Acapulco (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen, L.Q., Xie, X., Fan, X., Ma, W.Y., Zhang, H.J., Zhou, H.Q.: A visual attention model for adapting images on small displays. ACM Multimedia Systems Journal  (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clamann, M.P., Wright, M.C., Kaber, D.B.: Comparison of performance effects of adaptive automation applied to various stages of human-machine system information processing. In: Proc. of the 46th Ann. Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Soc., pp. 342–346 (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dautenhahn, K.: Human Cognition and Social Agent Technology. John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Duncan, J.: Selective attention and the organization of visual information. J. Exp. Psychol. 113, 501–517 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Eriksen, C.W., St. James, J.D.: Visual attention within and around the field of focal attention: a zoom lens model. Perception and psychophysics 40(4), 225–240 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
    Inagaki, T.: Adaptive automation: Sharing and trading of control 147–169 (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Itti, L., Koch, C.: Computational Modeling of Visual Attention. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2(3), 194–203 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Itti, L., Koch, U., Niebur, E.: A model of saliency-based visual attention for rapid scene analysis. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 20, 1254–1259 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jacob, P.: What Minds Can Do: Intentionality in a Non-Intentional World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jonker, C.M., Treur, J.: A Temporal-Interactivist Perspective on the Dynamics of Mental States. Cognitive Systems Research Journal 4, 137–155 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim, J.: Philosophy of Mind. Westview Press, Boulder (1996)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kim, Y., Van Velsen, M., Hill Jr., R.W.: Modeling Dynamic Perceptual Attention in Complex Virtual Environments. In: Panayiotopoulos, T., Gratch, J., Aylett, R., Ballin, D., Olivier, P., Rist, T. (eds.) IVA 2005. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3661, pp. 266–277. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    LaBerge, D.: Attentional control: brief and prolonged. Psychological Research 66, 230–233 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Land, M.F., Furneaux, S.: The knowledge base of the oculomotor system. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Londen Ser. B 352, 1231–1239 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Logan, G.D.: The CODE theory of visual attention: an integration of space-based and object-based attention. Psychol. Rev. 103, 603–649 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mack, A., Rock, I.: Inattentional Blindness: Perception without Attention. In: Wright, R.D. (ed.) visual attention, Ch. 3, pp. 55–76. MIT Press, Cambridge MA (1998)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Martinho, C., Paiva, A.: Using Anticipation to Create Believable Behaviour. In: Proceedings of AAAI 2006 (2006)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Parasuraman, R.: The attentive brain. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1998)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pashler, H., Johnson, J.C., Ruthruff, E.: Attention and Performance. Ann. Rev. Psych. 52, 629–651 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Posner, M.E.: Orienting of attention. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 32, 3–25 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sun, Y.: Hierarchical Object-Based Visual Attention for Machine Vision. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Edinburgh (2003)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Theeuwes, J.: Endogenous and exogenous control of visual selection. Perception 23, 429–440 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tibor Bosse
    • 1
  • Peter-Paul van Maanen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jan Treur
    • 1
  1. 1.Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Artificial Intelligence, De Boelelaan 1081a, 1081 HV AmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.TNO Human Factors, P.O. Box 23, 3769 ZG SoesterbergThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations