Automatic Synchronisation Between Audio and Score Musical Description Layers

  • Antonello D’Aguanno
  • Giancarlo Vercellesi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4816)


This work describes algorithms dedicated to score and audio alignment using the MX / IEEE P1599 format. The format allows description of the score, and management of synchronisation points, linking them with different versions of the performed music. An algorithm is proposed here that allows alignment of an MX score and its execution, coded in PCM format, which produces an output for the MX Spine that contains synchronisation between notes and audio signal. The proposed architecture is based on two different steps: the first deals with the audio level and the extraction of features like pitch, onset and the like, while the second determines the alignment between the features extracted in the first step and the notes present in the MX score. For each step, different algorithms are proposed and discussed, and analysis and comparison of synchronisation capabilities are provided.


IEEE P1599 MX synchronisation PCM MIDI 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Stephen, J.: Music information retrieval. In: Annual Review of Information Science and technology, ch. 7, Blaise Cronin, Medford, NJ, USA, vol. 37, pp. 295–340 (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arifi, V., Clausen, M., Kurth, F., Muller, M.: Automatic synchronization of music data in score-, midi-and pcm-format. In: ISMIR. Proc. of Intl. Symp. on Music Info. Retrieval (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dannenberg, R.B., Hu, N.: Polyphonic audio matching for score following and intelligent audio editors. In: Proceedings of the 2003 International Computer Music Conference, Singapore, October 2003, pp. 27–33 (2003)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clausen, M., Kurth, F., Müller, M., Arifi, V.: Automatic Synchronization of Musical Data: A Mathematical Approach. MIT Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dixon, S., Widmer, G.: Match: A music alignement tool chest. In: 6th International Conference on Music Information Retrieval (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Müller, M., Kurth, F., Röder, T.: Towards an efficient algorithm for automatic score-to-audio synchronization. In: ISMIR 2004. 5th International Conference on Music Information Retrieval, Barcellona, Spain (October 2004) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Soulez, F., Rodet, X., Schwarz, D.: Improving polyphonic and poly-instrumental music to score alignment. In: 4th International Conference on Music Information Retrieval, pp. 143–148 (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Turetsky, R.J., Ellis, D.: Ground-truth transcriptions of real music from force-aligned midi syntheses. In: Proc. Int. Conf. on Music Info. Retrieval ISMIR, vol. 3 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rabiner, L.R., Juang, B.H.: Fundamentals of Speech Recognition. Prentice, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1993)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haus, G., Longari, M.: A multi-layered, timebased music description approach based on xml. Computer Music Journal 29(1), 70–85 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haus, G., Longari, M.: Towards a symbolic/time-based music language based on xml. In: MAX 2002. Proceedings of the First International IEEE Conference on Musical Applications Using XML (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baraté, A., Ludovico, L.A.: An xml-based synchronization of audio and graphical representations of music scores. In: WIAMIS 2007. Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services, Santorini, Greece (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonello D’Aguanno
    • 1
  • Giancarlo Vercellesi
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorio di Informatica Musicale (LIM), Dipartimento di Informatica e Comunicazione (DICo), Universitá degli Studi di Milano, Via Comelico 39, I-20135 MilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations