Recent research in the area of business process management (BPM) introduced the application of a process algebra—the π-calculus—for the formal description of business processes and interactions among them. Especially in the area of service-oriented architectures, the key architecture for today’s BPM systems, the π-calculus—as well as other process algebras—have shown their benefits in representing dynamic topologies. What is missing, however, are investigations regarding the correctness, i.e. soundness, of process algebraic formalizations of business processes. Due to the fact that most existing soundness properties are given for Petri nets, these cannot be applied. This paper closes the gap by giving characterizations of invariants on the behavior of business processes in terms of bisimulation equivalence. Since bisimulation equivalence is a well known concept in the world of process algebras, the characterizations can directly be applied to π-calculus formalizations of business processes. In particular, we investigate the characterization of five major soundness properties, i.e. easy, lazy, weak, relaxed, and classical soundness.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Brogi, A., Canal, C., Pimentel, E., Vallecillo, A.: Formalizing Web Service Choreographies. In: Proceedings of First International Workshop on Web Services and Formal Methods. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, Elsevier, Amsterdam (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Laneve, C., Zavattaro, G.: Foundations of Web Transactions. In: Sassone, V. (ed.) FOSSACS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3441, pp. 282–298. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bordeaux, L., Salaün, G.: Using Process Algebra for Web Services: Early Results and Perspectives. In: Shan, M.-C., Dayal, U., Hsu, M. (eds.) TES 2004. LNCS, vol. 3324, pp. 54–68. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guidi, C., Lucchi, R., Gorrieri, R., Busi, N., Zavattaro, G.: SOCK: A Calculus for Service Oriented Computing. In: Dan, A., Lamersdorf, W. (eds.) ICSOC 2006. LNCS, vol. 4294, pp. 327–338. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mazzara, M., Lanese, I.: Towards a Unifying Theory for Web Service Composition. In: Bravetti, M., Núñez, M., Zavattaro, G. (eds.) WS-FM 2006. LNCS, vol. 4184, pp. 257–272. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ferrara, A.: Web Services: A Process Algebra Approach. In: ICSOC 2004. Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Service oriented computing, pp. 242–251. ACM Press, New York, NY, USA (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Decker, G., Zaha, J.M., Dumas, M.: Execution Semantics for Service Choreographies. In: Bravetti, M., Núñez, M., Zavattaro, G. (eds.) WS-FM 2006. LNCS, vol. 4184, pp. 163–177. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burbeck, S.: The Tao of E-Business Services (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Woodley, T., Gagnon, S.: BPM and SOA: Synergies and Challenges. In: Ngu, A.H.H., Kitsuregawa, M., Neuhold, E.J., Chung, J.-Y., Sheng, Q.Z. (eds.) WISE 2005. LNCS, vol. 3806, pp. 679–688. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Newcomer, E., Lomov, G.: Understanding SOA with Web Services. Addison–Wesley, London (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aalst, W.: Verification of Workflow Nets. In: Azéma, P., Balbo, G. (eds.) ICATPN 1997. LNCS, vol. 1248, pp. 407–426. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dehnert, J., Rittgen, P.: Relaxed Soundness of Business Processes. In: Dittrich, K.R., Geppert, A., Norrie, M.C. (eds.) CAiSE 2001. LNCS, vol. 2068, pp. 157–170. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martens, A.: Analyzing Web Service based Business Processes. In: Cerioli, M. (ed.) FASE 2005. LNCS, vol. 3442, pp. 19–33. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Milner, R., Parrow, J., Walker, D.: A Calculus of Mobile Processes, Part I/II. Information and Computation 100, 1–77 (1992)MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Puhlmann, F.: Why do we actually need the Pi-Calculus for Business Process Management? In: Abramowicz, W., Mayr, H. (eds.) BIS 2006. 9th International Conference on Business Information Systems, Bonn. LNI, vol. P-85, pp. 77–89. Gesellschaft für Informatik (2006)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Overdick, H., Puhlmann, F., Weske, M.: Towards a Formal Model for Agile Service Discovery and Integration. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Dynamic Web Processes (DWP 2005). IBM technical report RC23822, Amsterdam (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Puhlmann, F., Weske, M.: Using the Pi-Calculus for Formalizing Workflow Patterns. In: van der Aalst, W.M.P., Benatallah, B., Casati, F., Curbera, F. (eds.) BPM 2005. LNCS, vol. 3649, pp. 153–168. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Puhlmann, F., Weske, M.: Investigations on Soundness Regarding Lazy Activities. In: Dustdar, S., Fiadeiro, J.L., Sheth, A. (eds.) BPM 2006. LNCS, vol. 4102, pp. 145–160. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aalst, W., Hofstede, A., Weske, M.: Business Process Management: A Survey. In: van der Aalst, W.M.P., ter Hofstede, A.H.M., Weske, M. (eds.) BPM 2003. LNCS, vol. 2678, pp. 1–12. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sangiorgi, D., Walker, D.: The π-calculus: A Theory of Mobile Processes. Paperback edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2003)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Aalst, W., Hofstede, A., Kiepuszewski, B., Barros, A.P.: Workflow Patterns. Distributed and Parallel Databases 14, 5–51 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Keller, G., Nüttgens, M., Scheer, A.: Semantische Prozessmodellierung auf der Grundlage “Ereignisgesteuerter Prozessketten (EPK)”. Technical Report 89, Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik, Saarbrücken (1992)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    OMG: UML 2.0 Superstructure Final Adopted specification (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24. Business Process Modeling Notation. 1.0 edn. (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Aalst, W., Hee, K.: Workflow Management. MIT Press, Cambridge (2002)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Milner, R.: A Calculus of Communicating Systems. In: Jones, N.D. (ed.) Semantics-Directed Compiler Generation. LNCS, vol. 94, Springer, Heidelberg (1980)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Puhlmann, F.: A Tool Chain for Lazy Soundness. In: Demo Session of the 4th International Conference on Business Process Management, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vienna, vol. 203, pp. 9–16 (2006)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Basten, T.: In Terms of Nets: System Design with Petri Nets and Process Algebra. PhD thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (1998)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Puhlmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Business Process Technology Group, Hasso Plattner Institut for IT Systems Engineering, University of Potsdam, D-14482 PotsdamGermany

Personalised recommendations