Improving the Dependability of Prefix-Based Routing in DHTs

  • Sabina Serbu
  • Peter Kropf
  • Pascal Felber
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4803)

Abstract

Under frequent node arrival and departure (churn) in an overlay network structure, the problem of preserving accessibility is addressed by maintaining valid entries in the routing tables towards nodes that are alive. However, if the system fails to replace the entries of dead nodes with entries of live nodes in the routing tables soon enough, requests may fail. In such cases, mechanisms to route around failures are required to increase the tolerance to node failures.

Existing Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs) overlays include extensions to provide fault tolerance when looking up keys, however, these are often insufficient. We analyze the case of greedy routing, often preferred for its simplicity, but with limited dependability even when extensions are applied.

The main idea is that fault tolerance aspects need to be dealt with already at design time of the overlay. We thus propose a simple overlay that offers support for alternative paths, and we create a routing strategy which takes advantage of all these paths to route the requests, while keeping maintenance cost low. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that our approach provides an excellent resilience to failures.

Keywords

fault tolerance reliability DHT routing 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kaashoek, M.F., Karger, D.R.: Koorde: A simple degree-optimal distributed hash table. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems, pp. 323–336 (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Malkhi, D., Naor, M., Ratajczak, D.: Viceroy: A scalable and dynamic emulation of the butterfly. In: Proceedings of the 21st ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 183–192. ACM Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ratnasamy, S., Francis, P., Handley, M., Karp, R., Shenker, S.: A scalable content addressable network. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 161–172. ACM Press, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stoica, I., Morris, R., Karger, D., Kaashoek, F., Balakrishnan, H.: Chord: A scalable peer-to-peer lookup service for internet applications. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 149–160. ACM Press, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rowstron, A., Druschel, P.: Pastry: Scalable, decentralized object location, and routing for large-scale peer-to-peer systems. In: Guerraoui, R. (ed.) Middleware 2001. LNCS, vol. 2218, pp. 329–350. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhao, B., Huang, L., Stribling, J., Rhea, S., Joseph, A., Kubiatowicz, J.: Tapestry: A resilient global-scale overlay for service deployment. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 22(1), 41–53 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Maymounkov, P., Mazieres, D.: Kademlia: A peer-to-peer information system based on the xor metric. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems, pp. 53–65 (2002)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Castro, M., Costa, M., Rowstron, A.: Performance and dependability of structured peer-to-peer overlays. In: DSN2004. Proc. 2004 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, pp. 9–19 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Castro, M., Drushel, P., Ganesh, A., Rowstron, A., Wallach, D.: Secure routing for structured peer-to-peer overlay networks. In: OSDI2002. Proc. 5th Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation, pp. 299–314 (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Locher, T., Schmid, S., Watternhofer, R.: eQuus: A provably robust and locality-aware peer-to-peer system. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, pp. 3–11 (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schlosser, M., Sintek, M., Decker, S., Nejdl, W.: Hypercup – hypercubes, ontologies and efficient search on p2p networks. In: Moro, G., Koubarakis, M. (eds.) AP2PC 2002. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2530, pp. 112–124. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alvarez-Hamelin, J.I., Viana, A.C., Amorim, M.D.: DHT-based functionalities using hypercubes. In: Proceedings of World Computer Congress IFIP WCC, vol. 212, pp. 157–176 (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Salter, J., Antonopoulos, N.: An efficient fault tolerant approach to resource discovery in p2p networks. Technical Report CS-04-02, University of Surrey Guildford (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wepiwé, G., Simeonov, P.L.: A concentric multi-ring overlay for highly reliable p2p networks. In: NCA, pp. 83–90 (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lam, S.S., Liu, H.: Failure recovery for structured p2p networks: Protocol design and performance evaluation. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGMETRICS - Performace, pp. 199–210. ACM Press, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aspnes, J., Diamadi, Z., Shah, G.: Fault-tolerant routing in peer-to-peer systems. In: PODC2002. Proceedings 21st ACM Symp. on Principles of Distributed Computing, pp. 223–232. ACM Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aspnes, J., Diamadi, Z., Shah, G.: Greedy routing in peer-to-peer systems. extended version of Fault-tolerant routing in peer-to-peer systems (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Oh, E., Chen, J.: Parallel routing in hypercube networks with faulty nodes. In: ICPADS, pp. 338–345 (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabina Serbu
    • 1
  • Peter Kropf
    • 1
  • Pascal Felber
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Neuchâtel, CH-2009, NeuchâtelSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations