Autoimmune hepatitis


A particular form of chronic liver disease prevalent among young women with an excessive increase in protein and υ-globulin was first described by S. Amberg (1942) (2) and later by J. Waldenström (1950), who used the name “autoimmune hepatitis”. (102). In 1951 H. G. Kunnel et al. termed this condition “hypergammaglobulinaemic chronic hepatitis”. (47) This type of disease was confirmed by A. G. Bearn et al. (1956) (4) and, because of a positive LE-cell phenomenon in about 10% of cases (R. A. Joske et al., 1955) (43), was given the name “lupoid hepatitis” by I.R. Mackay et al. (1956). (49) • During the following years, there were frequent reports of a particular from of active and necrotizing liver disease, which was assumed in many cases to be autoimmune due to the treatment success achieved with glucocorticoids and/or azathioprine. Laboratory parameters were characterized by increased transaminase values, GDH, υ-globulins and immunoglobulins as well as by distinct histological findings — there was no possibility of obtaining immunologie evidence at that time.


Auto Immune Polyendocrine Syndrome Auto Immune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type Iral Hepat Rece Ptor Exper Ience 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alvarez, F.: Treatment of autoimmune hepatitis: Current and future therapies. Curr. Treat. Opt. Gastroenterol. 2004; 7: 413–420Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amberg, S.: Hyperproteinemia associated with severe liver damage. Proc. Mayo Clin. 1942; 17: 360–362Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ayata, G., Gordon, F.D., Lewis, W.D., Pomfret, E., Pomposelli, J.J., Jenkins, R.L., Khettry, U.: Liver transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis: A long-term pathologic study. Hepatology, 2000; 32: 185–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bearn, A.G., Kumkel, H.G., Slater, R.J.: The problem of chronic liver disease in young women. Amer. J. Med. 1956; 21: 3–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bellary, S., Schiano, T., Hartman, G., Black, M.: Chronic hepatitis with combined features of autoimmune chronic hepatitis and chronic hepatitis C: favorable response to prednisone and azathioprine. Ann. Intern. Med. 1995; 123: 32–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bianchi, F.B., Muratori, P., Muratori, L.: New antibodies and autoantigens in autoimmune hepatitis. Clin. Liver Dis. 2002; 6: 497–509Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boberg, K.M.: Prevalence and epidemiology of autoimmune hepatitis. Clin. Liver Dis. 2002; 6: 347–359Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brunt, E.M., di Bisceglie, A.M.: Histological changes after the use of mycophenolate mofetil in autoimmune hepatitis. Hum. Path. 2004; 35: 509–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buchel, E., van Steenbergen, W., Nevens, F., Fevery, J.: Improvement of autoimmune hepatitis during pregnancy followed by flare-up after delivery. Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 2002; 97: 3160–3165Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burak, K.W., Urbanski, S.J., Swain, M.G.: Successful treatment of refractory type 1 autoimmune hepatitis with methotrexate. J. Hepatol. 1998; 29: 990–993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carpenter, H.A., Czaya, A.J.: The role of histologic evaluation in the diagnosis and management of autoimmune hepatitis and its variants. Clin. Liver Dis. 2002; 6: 685–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cattan, P., Bemey, T., Conti, F., Calmus, Y., Homberg, J.C., Houssin. D., Soubrane, O.: Outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation in autoimmune hepatitis according to subtypes. Transpl. Intl. 2002; 15: 34–38Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cianciara, J., Laskus, T.: Development of transient autoimmune hepatitis during interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1995; 40: 1842–1844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Coverdale, S.A., Field, J., Farrell, G.C.: How reversible is hepatic functional impairment in autoimmune hepatitis?. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2003; 18: 371–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Czaja, A.J., Wang, K.K., Shiels, M.T., Katzmann, J.H.: Oral pulse prednisone therapy after relapse of severe autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 1993; 17: 180–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Czaja, A.J., Carpenter, H.A., Santrach, P.J., Moore, S.B.: Significance of HLA DR4 in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1993; 105: 1502–1507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Czaja, A.J., Cassani, F., Cataleta, M., Valentini, P., Bianchi, F.B.: Frequency and significance of antibodies to actin in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 1996; 24; 1068–1073PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Czaja, A.J.: Treatment strategies in autoimmune hepatitis. Clin. Liver dis. 2002; 6: 799–824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Czaja, A.J., Carpenter, H.A.: Decreased fibrosis during corticosteroid therapy of autoimmune hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 2004; 40: 646–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dalekos, G.N., Zachou, K., Liasko, C., Gatselis, N.: Autoantibodies and defined target autoantigens in autoimmune hepatitis: an overview. Eur. J. Int. Med. 2002; 13: 293–303Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Danielsson, A., Prytz, H.: Oral budesonide for treatment of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 1994: 8: 585–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Devlin, J., Donaldson, P., Portmann, B., Heaton, N., Tan, K.-C., Williams, R.: Recurrence of autoimmune hepatitis following liver transplantation. Liver Transplant. Surg. 1995; 1: 162–165Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dienes, H.P., Autschbach, F., Gerber, M.A.: Ultrastructural lesions in autoimmune hepatitis and steps of the immune response in liver tissue. Semin. Liver Dis. 1991; 11: 197–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dobaldson, P.T., Doherty, D.G., Hayllar, K.M., McFarlane, I.G., Johnson, P.J., Williams, R.: Susceptibility to autoimmune chronic active hepatitis: human leukocyte antigens DR4 and A1-B8-DR3 are independent risk factors. Hepatology 1991; 13: 701–706Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Donaldson, P.T.: Genetics in autoimmune hepatitis. Semin. Liver Dis. 2002; 22: 353–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Duchini, A., McHutchison, J.G., Pockros, P.J.: LKM-positive autoimmune hepatitis in the western United States: a case series. Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 2000; 95: 3238–3241Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Duclos-Vallée, J.-C., Sebagh, M., Rifai, K., Johanet, C., Ballot, E., Guettier, C., Karam, V., Hurtova, M., Feray, C., Reynes, M., Bismuth, H., Samuel, D.: A 10 year follow-up study of patients transplanted for autoimmune hepatitis: histological recurrence precedes clinical and biochemical recurrence. Gut 2003; 52: 893–897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dufour, J.-F., DeLellis, R., Kaplan, M.M.: Reversibility of hepatic fibrosis in autoimmune hepatitis. Ann. Intern. Med. 1997; 127: 981–985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dufour, J.F., Zimmermann, M., Reichen, J.: Severe autoimmune hepatitis in patients with previous spontaneous recovery of a flare. J. Hepatol. 2002; 37: 748–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fernandes, N.F., Redeker, A.G., Vierling, J.M., Villamil, F.G., Fong, T.L.: Cyclosporine therapy in patients with steroid resistant autoimmune hepatitis. Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 1999; 94: 241–248Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fried, M.W., Draguesku, J.O., Shindo, M., Simpson, L.H., Banks, S.M., Hoofmagle, J.H., Di Bisceglie, A.M.: Clinical and serological differentiation of autoimmune and hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1993; 38: 631–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Garcia-Buey, L., Garcia-Monzoin, C., Rodriguez, S., Borque, M.J., Gar-cia-Sanchez, A., Iglesias, R., de Castro, M., Mateos, F.G., Vicario, J.L., Balas, A., Moreno-Otero, R.: Latent autoimmune hepatitis triggered during interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 1995; 108: 1770–1777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Goldstein, N.S., Bayati, N., Silverman, A.L., Gordon, S.C.: Minocycline as a cause of drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis. — Report of four cases and comparison with autoimmune hepatitis. Amer. J. Clin. Path. 2000; 114: 591–598Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gregorio, G.V., Portmann, B., Reid, F., Donaldson, P.T., Doherty, D.G., McCartney, M., Mowat, A.P., Vergani, D., Mieli-Vergani, G.: Autoimmune hepatitis in childhood: a 20-year experience. Hepatology 1997; 25: 541–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Han, S., Tredger, M., Gregorio, G.V., Mieli-Vergani, G., Vergani, D.: Anti-liver cytosolic antigen type 1 (LC1) antibodies in childhood autoimmune liver disease. Hepatology 1995; 21: 58–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Herzog, D., Rasquin-Weber, A.-M., Debray, D., Alvarez, F.: Subfulminant hepatic failure in autoimmune hepatitis type 1: an unusual form of presentation. J. Hepatol. 1997; 27: 578–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hodges, S., Lobo-Yeo, A., Donaldson, P., Tanner, M.S., Vergani, D.: Autoimmune chronic active hepatitis in a family. Gut 1991; 32: 299–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Homberg, J.-C., Abuaf, N., Bernard, O., Islam, S., Alvarez, F., Khalil, S.H., Poupon, R., Darnis, F., Lévy, V.-G., Grippon, P., Opolon, P., Bernuau, J., Benhamou, J.-P., Alagille, D.: Chronic active hepatitis associated with anti-liver/kidney microsome antibody type 1: a second type of “autoimmune hepatitis”. Hepatology 1987; 7: 1333–1339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hunziker, L., Recher, M., Andrew, J., Macpherson, A.J., Ciura, A., Freigang, S., Hengartner, H., Zinkernagel, R.M.: Hypergammaglobulinemia and autoantibody induction mechanisms in viral infection. Nat. Immunol. 2003; 4: 343–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jackson, L.D., Song, E.: Cyclosporine in the treatment of corticoidresistant autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Gut 1995; 36: 459–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Johnson, P.J., McFarlane, I.G., Eddleston, A.L.W.F.: The natural course and heterogeneity of autoimmune-type chronic active hepatitis. Semin. Liver Dis. 1991; 11: 187–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Johnson, P.J., McFarlane, I.G., Williams, R.: Azathioprine for longterm maintenance of remission in autoimmune hepatitis. New Engl. J. Med. 1995; 333: 958–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Joske, R.A., King, W.E.: The L.E. cell phenomen in active viral hepatitis. Lancet 1955/II: 477–480Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kanzler, S., Gerken, G., Dienes, H.P., Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K.H., Lohse, A.W.: Cyclophosphamide as alternative immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune hepatitis — report of three cases. Zschr. Gastroenterol. 1997; 35: 571–578Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Klein, C., Philipp, T., Greiner, P., Strobelt, M., Müller, H., Trautwein, C., Brandis, M., Manns, M.: Asymptomatic autoimmune hepatitis associated with anti-LC-1 autoantibodies. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutrit. 1996; 23: 461–465Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kogan, J., Safadi, R., Ashur, Y., Shouval, D., Ilan, Y.: Prognosis of symptomatic versus asymptomatic autoimmune hepatitis: a study of 68 patients. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 2002; 35: 75–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kunkel, H.G., Ahrens, E.H., Eisenmenger, W.J., Bougiovanni, A.M., Slater, R.J.: Extreme hypergammaglobulinemia in young women with liver disease of unknown etiology. J. Clin. Invest. 1951; 30: 654–659Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lohse, A.W., Gerken, G., Mohr, H., Löhr, H.F., Treichel, U., Dienes, H.P., Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K.-H.: Relation between autoimmune liver diseases and viral hepatitis. Clinical and serological characteristics in 859 patients. Z. Gastroenterol. 1995; 33: 527–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mackay, I.R., Taft, L.I., Cowling, D.C.: Lupoid hepatitis. Lancet 1956/II: 1323–1326Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Manabe, K., Donaldson, P.T., Underhill, J.A., Doherty, D.G., Mieli-Ver-gani, G., McFarlane, I.G., Eddleston, A.L., Williams, R.: Human leukocyte antigen A1-B8-DR3-DQ2-DPB1-0401 extended haplotype in autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 1993; 18: 1334–1337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Manns, M., Gerken, G., Kyriatsoulis, A., Staritz, M., Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K.-H.: Characterisation of a new subgroup of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis by autoantibodies against a soluble liver antigen. Lancet 1987/I: 292–294Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    McFarlane, I.G.: Definition and classification of autoimmune hepatitis. Semin. Liver Dis. 2002; 22: 317–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Medina, J., Garcia-Buey, L., Moreno-Otera, R.: Immunopathogenetic and therapeutic aspects of autoimmune hepatitis (review). Amer. Pharm. Ther. 2003; 17: 1–16Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K.H.: Autoimmune hepatitis: “Hepatitis sui generic”. J. Hepatol. 2003; 38: 130–135Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Michel, G., Ritter, A., Gerken, G., Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K.-H., Decker, R., Manns, M.P.: Anti-GOR and hepatitis C virus in autoimmune liver diseases. Lancet 1992; 339: 267–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mieli-Vergani, G., Vergani, D.: Autoimmune hepatitis in children. Clin. Liver Dis. 2002; 6: 247–259Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Milkiewiez, P., Hubscher, S.G., Skiba, G., Hathaway, M., Elias, E.: Recurrence of autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation. Transplantation 1999; 68: 253–256Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Misdraji, J., Thiim, M., Graeme-Cook, F.M.: Autoimmune hepatitis with centrilobular necrosis. Amer. J. Surg. Path. 2003; 28: 471–478Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mistilis, S.P., Vickers, C.R., Darroch, M.H., McCarthy, S.W.: Cyclosporine, a new treatment for autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Med. J. Austr. 1985; 143: 463–465Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Miyakawa, H., Kitazawa, E., Abe, K., Kawaguchi, N., Fuzikawa, H., Kikuchi, K., Kato, M., Komatsu, T., Hayashi, N., Kiyosawa, K.: Chronic hepatitis C associated with anti-liver/kidney microsome-1 antibody is not a subgroup of autoimmune hepatitis. J. Gastroenterol. 1997; 32: 769–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Muratori, L., Lenzi, M., Cataleta, M., Giostra, F., Cassani, F., Ballardini, G., Zauli, D., Bianchi, F.B.: Interferon therapy in liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1-positive patients with chronic hepatitis C. J. Hepatol. 1994; 21: 199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nakadate, I., Nakamura, A., Endo, R., Iwai, M., Kaneta, H., Shimotono, H., Sasaki, S., Takikawa, Y., Yamazaki, K., Madarame, T., Kashiwabara, T., Suzuki, K., Sato, S.: Autoimmune hepatitis presenting with acute hepatic failure. Acta Hepatol. Japan. 1993; 34: 665–671Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Neuberger, J., Portmann, B., Calne, R., Williams, R.: Recurremce of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis following orthotopic liver grafting. Transplantation 1984; 37: 363–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Nobili, V., Comparcola, D., Sartorelli, M.R., Devito, R., Marcellini, M.: Autoimmune hepatitis type 1 after Epstein-Barr virus infection. Paediatr. Infect. J. 2003; 22: 387Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nouri-Aria, K.T., Donaldson, P.T., Hegarty, J.E., Eddleston, A.L.W.F., Williams, R.: HLA-A1-B8-DR3 and suppressor cell function in first degree relatives of patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 1985; 1: 235–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Obermayer-Straub, P., Strassburg, C.P., Manns, M.P.: Autoimmune hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 2000; 32 (Suppl. 1) 181–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Papo, T., Marcellin, P., Bernuau, J., Durand, F., Poynard, T., Benhamou, J.P.: Autoimmune chronic hepatitis exacerbated by alpha-interferon. Ann. Intern. Med. 1992; 116: 51–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Park, S.Z., Nagorney, D.M., Czaja, A.J.: Hepatocellular carcinoma in autoimmune hepatitis. Dig. Dis. Sci. 2000; 45: 1944–1948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Paroli, M., Franco, A., Santilio, I., Balsano, C., Levrero, M., Barnaba, V.: Cyclosporine A in the treatment of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis occurring with or without circulating antibodies against hepatitis C Virus. Int. J. Immunther. 1992; 8: 135–140Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Perdigoto, R., Carpenter, H.A., Czaja, A.J.: Frequency and significance of chronic ulcerative colitis in severe corticosteroid-treated autoimmune hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 1992; 14: 325–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Person, J.L., McHutchison, J.G., Fong, T., Redeker, A.G.: A case of cyclosporine-sensitive, steroid-resistant autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. J. Clin. Gastroent. 1993; 17: 317–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Prados, E., Cuervas-Mons, U., de la Mata, M., Fraga, E., Rimola, A., Prieto, M., Clemente, G., Vicente, E., Casanova, T., Fabrega, E.: Outcome of autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation. Transplantation 1998; 66: 1645–1650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pratt, D.S., Flavin, D.P., Kaplan, M.M.: The successful treatment of autoimmune hepatitis with 6-mercaptopurine after failure with azathioprine. Gastroenterology 1996; 110: 271–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rahaman, S.M., Chira, P., Koff, R.S.: Idiopathic autoimmune chronic hepatitis triggered by hepatitis A. Amer. J. Gastroent. 1994; 89: 106–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rehermann, B., Michitaka, K., Durazzo, M., Mergener, K., Velev, P., Manns, M.P.: Viruses and auto-immune hepatitis. Europ. J. Clin. Invest. 1994; 24: 11–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Reich, D.J., Fiel, I., Guarrera, J.V., Emre, S., Schwartz, M.E., Miller, C.M., Sheiner, P.A.: Liver transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 2000; 32: 693–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Richardson, P.D., James, P.D., Ryder, S.D.: Mycophenolate mofetil for maintenance of remission in autoimmune hepatitis in patients resistant. J. Hepatol. 2000; 33: 371–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Robertson, D.A.F., Zhang, S.L., Guy, E.C., Wright, R.: Persistent measles virus genome in autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Lancet 1987/I: 9–11Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ruiz-Mureno, M., Rua, M.J., Carreno, V., Quironga, J.A., Manns, M., Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K.-H.: Autoimmune chronic active hepatitis type 2 manifested during interferon therapy in children. J. Hepatol. 1991; 12: 265–266Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ryder, S.D., Koskinas, J., Rizzi, P.M., McFarlane, I.G., Portmann, B.C., Naoumov, N.V., Williams, R.: Hepatocellular carcinoma complicating autoimmune hepatitis: role of hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 1995; 22: 718–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sanchez-Urdazpal, L., Czaja, A.J., von Hoek, B., Ruud, A.F., Krom and Russel, H., Wiesner, J.: Prognostic features and role of liver transplantation in severe corticosteroid-treated autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology 1991; 15: 215–221Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Seki, T., Kiyosawa, K., Inoko, H., Ota, M.: Association of autoimmune hepatitis with HLA-Bw54 and DR4. Hepatology 1990; 12: 1300–1304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sherman, K.E., Narkewicz, M., Pinto, P.C.: Cyclosporine in the management of corticosteroid-resistant type I autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 1994; 21: 1040–1047PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Singh, R., Nair, S., Farr, G., Mason, A., Perrillo, R.P.: Acute autoimmune hepatitis presenting with centrizonal liver disease: case report and review of the literature. Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 2002; 97: 2670–2673Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Stechemesser, E., Klein, R., Berg, P.A.: Characterization and clinical relevance of liver-pancreas antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatology 1993; 18: 1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stellon, A.J., Kreating, J.J., Johnson, P.J., McFarlane, I.G., Williams, R.: Maintenance of remission in autoimmune chronic active hepatitis with azathioprine after corticosteroid withdrawal. Hepatology 1988; 8: 781–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Storch, W.B.: New autoantibodies and their antigens in autoimmune diseases. Cell. Molec. Biol. 1997; 43: 337–344. Autoantikörper und ihre diagnostische Bedeutung. Dtsch. Med. Wschr. 1998; 123: 1213–1216Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Storch, W.B.: Autoimmune hepatitis — update 2004. Cell. Mol. Biol. 2004; 50: 569–580Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Strassburg, C.P., Manns, M.P.: Autoantibodies and autoantigens in autoimmune hepatitis. Semin. Liver Dis. 2002; 22: 339–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tagle Arrospide, M., Leon Barva, R.: Viral hepatitis A as triggering agent of autoimmune hepatitis Report of case and review of the literature. Rev. Gastroenterol. Peru 2003; 23: 134–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Terracciano, L.M., Patzina, R.A., Lehmann, F.S., Tornillo, L., Cathomas, G., Mhawech, P., Vecchione, R., Bianchi, L.: A spectrum of histopathologic findings in autoimmune liver disease. Amer. J. Clin. Pathol. 2000; 114: 705–711Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Todros, L., Saracco, G., Durazzo, M., Abate, M.L., Touscoz, G., Scaglione, L., Verme, G., Rizetto, M.: Efficacy and safety of interferon alfa therapy in chronic hepatitis C with autoantibodies to liver-kidney microsomes. Hepatology 1995; 22: 1374–1378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Treichel, U., Gerken, G., Rossol, S., Rotthauwe, H.W., Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K.-H., Poralla, T.: Autoantibodies against the human asialoglycoprotein receptor: effects of therapy in autoimmune and virus induced chronic active hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 1993; 19: 55–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Van den Berg, A.P.: Autoimmune hepatitis: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 1998; 33 (Suppl. 225): 66–69Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Van Thiel, D.H., Wright, H., Carroll, P., Abu-Elmagd, K., Rodriguez, Rilo, H., McMichael, J., Irish, W., Starzl, T.E.: Tacrolimus: a potential new treatment for autoimmune chronic active hepatitis: results of an open-label preliminary trial. Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 1995; 90: 771–776Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Vento, S., Garofano, T., di Perri, G., Dolci, L., Concia, E., Bassetti, D.: Identification of hepatitis A virus as trigger for autoimmune chronic hepatitis type 1 in susceptible individuals. Lancet 1991; 337: 1183–1187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Vento, S., Guella, L., Mirandola, F., Cainelli, F., di Perri, G., Solbiati, M., Ferraro, T., Concia, E.: Epstein-Barr virus as a trigger for autoimmune hepatitis in susceptible individuals. Lancet 1995; 346: 608–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vento, S., Cainelli, F., Ferraro, T., Concia, E.: Autoimmune hepatitis type 1 after measles. Amer. J. Gastroenterol. 1996; 91: 2618–2620Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Vergani, D., Mieli-Vergani, G.: Autoimmune hepatitis. Autoimmun Rev. 2003; 2: 241–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Vogel, A., Strassburg, C.P., Manns, M.P.: 77C/G mutation in the tyrosine phosphatase CD45 gene and autoimmune hepatitis: evidence for a genetic link. Genes Immun. 2003; 4: 79–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wächter, B., Kyriatsouis, A., Lohse, A.W., Gerken, G., Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K.-H., Manns, M.P.: Characterisation of liver cytokeratin as a major target of anti-SLA antibodies. J. Hepatol. 1990; 11: 232–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Waldenström, J.: Leber, Blutproteine und Nahrungseiweiß. Dtsch. J. Verdau. Stoffwechselkr. 1950; 15: 113–119Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wang, K.K., Czaja, A.J.: Hepatocellular carcinoma in corticosteroidtreated severe autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology 1988; 8: 1679–1683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wen, L., Peakman, M., Lobo-Yeo, A., McFarlane, B.M., Mowat, A.P., Mieli-Vergani, G., Vergani, D.: T-cell-directed hepatocyte damage in autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Lancet 1990; 336: 1527–1530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wies, I., Brunner, S., Henninger, J., Herkel, J., Kanzler, S., Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K.-H., Lohse, A.W.: Identification of target antigen for SLA/LP autoantibodies in autoimmune hepatitis. Lancet 2000; 355 1510–1515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wright, H.L., Bou-Abboud, C.F., Hassanein, T., Block, G.D., Demetris, A.J., Starzl, T.E., van Thiel, D.H.: Disease recurrence and rejection following liver transplantation for autoimmune chronic active liver disease. Transplantation 1992; 53: 136–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Yamaoka, K., Koizumi, K., Asahina, Y., Tajiri, K., Sakai, Y., Tazawa, J.: Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with autoimmune hepatitis — a case report and a review of the literature. Japan. J. Gastroenterol. 1994; 91: 1262–1267Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zanger, U.M., Hauri, H.P., Loeper, J., Homberg, J.C., Meyer, U.A.: Antibodies against human cytochrome P 450 dbl in autoimmune hepatitis type II. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 1988; 27: 8256–8260Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg 2008

Personalised recommendations