Improving the Adaptiveness of an e-Learning System

  • Ioannis Hatzilygeroudis
  • Constantinos Koutsojannis
  • Nikolaos Papachristou
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 93)


Education of health-related professions such as medicine, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, etc. represents a major category of adult training. Cognitive flexibility theory which emphasizes a case study based approach involving context-dependent and realistic situations applies directly to health care education. COFALE is an adaptive e-learning environment supporting cognitive flexibility. In this chapter, we present EX-COFALE, an extension to COFALE. COFALE, although offers facilities for adaptive content presentation, adaptive use of pedagogical devices and adaptive communication, it lacks facilities for adaptive student assessment. EX-COFALE remedies this deficiency of COFALE by allowing for automated test creation and assessment based on the students’ knowledge information. To this end, COFALE has been modified to allow for representation of associations between test questions and learning concepts. Also, assessment is made at two levels, the concept and the goal level, taking into account the difficulty level of the questions. To achieve the above, a rule-based intelligent component is used. To evaluate EX-COFALE, we implemented a course concerning fundamental aspects of radiation protection, which was used by a number of students in a nursing department and evaluated for usability of the e-learning system and educational content administration. The results are quite promising.


Knowledge Level Learning Goal Intelligent Tutoring System Student Model Goal Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adaptive Technology Resource Center, A tutor learning content management system (, 2004.
  2. 2.
    Avouris, N., Tselios, N., Fidas C. and Papahristos E. (2003). Website evaluation: a usability-based perspective, In: Y. Manalopoulos et al. (ed.). LNCS No. 2563, pp. 217–232. Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barrows, H.S. and Tamblyn, R.M. (1980). Problem-Based Learning: An Approach to Medical Learning. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brusilovsky, P. (1999). Adaptive and intelligent technologies for web based education, In: C. Rollinger and C. Peylo (eds.). Special Issue on Intelligent Systems and Teleteaching, Künstliche Intelligenz 4, pp. 19–25.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brusilovsky, P. (1998). Methods and techniques of adaptive hypermedia. In: Brusilovsky, P., Kobsa A., and Vassileva, J. (eds.). Adaptive Hypertext and Hypermedia. Kluwer, Dordecht.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chieu, V.M., Anh, D.T.V. and Hung, P.K. (2006). An operational approach for analyzing ICT-based constructivist and adaptive learning systems. Fourth IEEE International Conference on Computer Sciences: Research, Innovation and Vision for the Future (RIVF’06), February 12–16, Hochiminh City, Vietnam, 1–10.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chieu, V.M. and Milgrom, E. (2005). COFALE: an adaptive learning environment supporting cognitive flexibility, The Twelfth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, pp. 491–498.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Christea, P.D. and Tuduce, R., Test authoring for intelligent E-learning environments, First International Workshop on Authoring of Adaptive and Adaptable Educational Hypermedia, 2004,
  9. 9.
    Christea, P.D., Tuduce, R., Savescu, I.A., Grogorin, C.A., Tomozei, D.-C., Gradinescu, V.R. and Rangu, C.M. (2004). Prototype implementation of an intelligent e-learning system, Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Web-Based Education (WBE-04), Feb. 16–18, Innsbruck, Austria. Acta Press, pp. 441–446.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hamilton, D.D., Peck, M.M., Yu H., and Kearfott, K.J. (2000). Computer-based radiation safety training for hospital radiation workers. Health Physics 78(Suppl. 1):S4–S8.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dupree, S.M. (1999). Development of web-based radiation safety training to meet the needs of a small academic institution. Abstracts of papers presented at the Forty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Health Physics 76:5146.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Elstein, A., Shukman, L. and Sprafka, S. (1978). Medical Problem Solving. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Freedman, R. (2000). What is an Intelligent Tutoring System? Intelligence 11(3):15–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Friedman-Hill, E. (2003). Jess in Action: Rule-Based Systems in Java. Manning Publishing.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hatzilygeroudis I. (Guest Editor) (2004). Special Issue on AI Techniques in Web-Based Educational Systems. International Journal on AI Tools (IJAIT) 13(2).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    O’Neil, H.F. and Spielberger, C. (1979). Cognitive and Affective Learning Strategies. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hóttenhain, R., Klemke, R., Kravcik, M., Pesin, L., and Specht. M. (2002). Adaptive learning environment in WINDS, In: Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2002, Denver Colorado. AACE Press, Charlottesville, VA, pp. 1846–1851.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hatzilygeroudis, I., Koutsojannis, C., and Papavlasopoulos, C. (2006). Knowledge-Based Adaptive Assessment in a Web-Based Intelligent Educational System.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hatzilygeroudis, I., Prentzas, J. and Garofalakis, J. (2005). Personalized Learning in Web-Based Intelligent Educational Systems: Technologies and Techniques.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Intelligent Educational Systems: Technologies and Techniques.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jonassen, D., Ambruso, D. and Olesen, J. (1992). Designing hypertext on transfusion medicine using cognitive flexibility theory. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 1(3):309–322.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kazi, S.A. (2004). A conceptual framework for web-based intelligent learning environments using SCORM-2004”, Proceedings of the IEEE ICALT-2004, Aug. 30–Sept. 1, 2004, Joensuu, Finland, IEEE Computer Society, pp. 12–15.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Knussen, C., Tanner, G.R. and Kibby, M.R. (1991). An approach to the Evaluation of Hypermedia. Computers Education 17(1).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kravcik, M. and Specht, M. (2004). Authoring adaptive courses-ALE approach, Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Web-Based Education (WBE-04), Feb. 16–18, 2004, Innsbruck, Austria. Acta Press, pp. 396–401.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kravcik, M., Specht, R., Pesin, M. and Klemke, R. (2001). Authoring adaptive educational hypermedia in WINDS, Online Proc. ABIS 2001 Workshop (Adaptivitat und Benutzermodellierung in interaktiven Softwaresystemen), Dortmund, Germany (Available at
  26. 26.
    McGuire, C.H. et al. (1983). Handbook of Health Professions Education. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Norman, G.R. and Schmidt, N. (1992). The psychological basis of problem-based learning. A review of the evidence. Academic Medicine 67:557–565.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reeves, T.C. (1994). Systematic evaluation procedures for interactive multimedia for education and training, Reisman, S. (ed.). Multimedia Computing: Preparing for the 21st Century.Idea Group, Harrisburg, PA.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Klemke, R., Kravcik, M., Pesin, L. and Specht, M. Authoring adaptive educational hypermedia in WINDS, Online Proc. ABIS 2001 Workshop (Adaptivitat und Benutzermodellierung in interaktiven Softwaresystemen), Dortmund, Germany, 2001 (Available at
  30. 30.
    Santos, O.C., Boticario, J.G. and Barrera, C. (2005). ALFANET: an adaptive and standard-based learning environment built upon DotLRN and other open source developments, Calvo, R.A., Ellis, R.A. and Peters, D. Internationalisation and ElearningSystems: LRN Case Studies. In: Delgado Kloos, C. and Boticario, J.G. (eds.), Proceedings of Foro Hispano, LRN, Madrid, 2005.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Santos, O.C., Gaudioso, E., Barrera, C. and Boticario, J.G. (2003). “LFANET: an adaptive e-learning platform, Second International Conference on Multimedia and ICTs in Education (m-ICTE2003).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shih, T.K., Lin, N.H., and Chang, H.-P., An intelligent e-learning system with authoring and assessment mechanism, Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA’03).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Spiro, R.J. and Jehng, J. (1990). Cognitive flexibility and hypertext: theory and technology for the non-linear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter. D. Nix and R. Spiro (eds.), Cognition, Education, and Multimedia. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Spiro, R.J., Feltovich, P.J., Jacobson, M.J., and Coulson, R.L. (1992). Cognitive flexibility, constructivism and hypertext: random access instruction for advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains. In: Duffy, T., and Jonassen, D. (eds.), Constructivism and the Technology of Instruction. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tullis, T.S. and Stetson, J.N. (2004). A comparison of questionnaires for assessing website usability”, UPA 2004, Human Interface Design Department, Fidelity Center for Applied Technology, Fidelity Investments.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tosteson, D.C. (1979). Learning in medicine. New England Journal of Medicine 301(13):690–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Psaromiligkos, Y. and Retails, S. (2003). Re-evaluating the effectiveness of a web-based learning system: a comparative case study. JI of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Barker, P. and King, T. (1993). Evaluating interactive multimedia courseware – a methodology. Computers and Education 2:4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioannis Hatzilygeroudis
    • 1
  • Constantinos Koutsojannis
    • 2
  • Nikolaos Papachristou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Engineering and Informatics, School of EngineeringUniversity of PatrasGreece
  2. 2.Departmen of Nursing, School of Health SciencesHigher Technological Educational Institute of PatrasGreece

Personalised recommendations