Towards Pose-Invariant 2D Face Classification for Surveillance
A key problem for “face in the crowd” recognition from existing surveillance cameras in public spaces (such as mass transit centres) is the issue of pose mismatches between probe and gallery faces. In addition to accuracy, scalability is also important, necessarily limiting the complexity of face classification algorithms. In this paper we evaluate recent approaches to the recognition of faces at relatively large pose angles from a gallery of frontal images and propose novel adaptations as well as modifications. Specifically, we compare and contrast the accuracy, robustness and speed of an Active Appearance Model (AAM) based method (where realistic frontal faces are synthesized from non-frontal probe faces) against bag-of-features methods (which are local feature approaches based on block Discrete Cosine Transforms and Gaussian Mixture Models). We show a novel approach where the AAM based technique is sped up by directly obtaining pose-robust features, allowing the omission of the computationally expensive and artefact producing image synthesis step. Additionally, we adapt a histogram-based bag-of-features technique to face classification and contrast its properties to a previously proposed direct bag-of-features method. We also show that the two bag-of-features approaches can be considerably sped up, without a loss in classification accuracy, via an approximation of the exponential function. Experiments on the FERET and PIE databases suggest that the bag-of-features techniques generally attain better performance, with significantly lower computational loads. The histogram-based bag-of-features technique is capable of achieving an average recognition accuracy of 89% for pose angles of around 25 degrees.
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