As We May Link: A General Metamodel for Hypermedia Systems

  • Beat Signer
  • Moira C. Norrie
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4801)


Many hypermedia models have been proposed, including those specifically developed to model navigational aspects of web sites. But few hypermedia systems have been implemented based on metamodelling principles familiar to the database community. Often there is no clear separation between conceptual and technical issues in the models and their implementations are not based on an explicit representation of a metamodel. This results in a loss of generality and uniformity across systems. Based on principles of metamodel-driven system development, we have implemented a platform that can support various categories of hypermedia systems through the generality and extensibility of the metamodel. We present our metamodel and show how it generalises concepts present in a range of hypermedia and link server systems.


Structural Link Target Entity Interactive Paper Link Target Link Source 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bush, V.: As We May Think. Atlantic Monthly 176(1), 101–108 (1945)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Halasz, F.G., Schwartz, M.: The Dexter Hypertext Reference Model. Communications of the ACM 37(2) (1994)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grønbæk, K., Trigg, R.H.: Design Issues for a Dexter-based Hypermedia System. Communications of the ACM 37(2), 40–49 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hardman, L., Bulterman, D.C.A., van Rossum, G.: The Amsterdam Hypermedia Model: Adding Time and Context to the Dexter Model. Communications of the ACM 37(2), 50–62 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brusilovsky, P.: Methods and Techniques of Adaptive Hypermedia. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 6(2–3), 87–129 (1996)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Parunak, H.: Don’t Link Me In: Set Based Hypermedia for Taxonomic Reasoning. In: Proc. of Hypertext ’91, San Antonio, USA, pp. 233–242 (December 1991)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bra, P.D., Houben, G.J., Wu, H.: AHAM: A Dexter-Based Reference Model for Adaptive Hypermedia. In: Proc. of Hypertext 1999, Darmstadt, Germany (February 1999)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Millard, D., Moreau, L., Davis, H., Reich, S.: FOHM: A Fundamental Open Hypertext Model for Investigating Interoperability between Hypertext Domains. In: Proc. of Hypertext 2000 (May 2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nürnberg, P.J., Leggett, J.J., Wiil, U.K.: An Agenda for Open Hypermedia Research. In: Proc. of Hypertext 1998, Pittsburgh, USA, pp. 198–206 (June 1998)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Anderson, K.M., Taylor, R.N., E. J., Whitehead, J.: Chimera: Hypermedia for Heterogeneous Software Development Environments. ACM Transactions on Information Systems 18(3), 211–245 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hall, W., Davis, H.C., Hutchings, G.: Rethinking Hypermedia: The Microcosm Approach. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maurer, H.: Hyperwave: The Next Generation Web Solution. Addison-Wesley, London, UK (1996)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    De Rose, S.J: XML Linking. ACM Computing Surveys 31(4) (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Newcomb, S.R., Kipp, N.A., Newcomb, V.T.: The “HyTime”: Hypermedia/Time-based Document Structuring Language. Communications of the ACM 34(11), 67–83 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kahan, J., Koivunen, M.R., Prud’Hommeaux, E., Swick, R.R.: Annotea: An Open RDF Infrastructure for Shared Web Annotations. In: Proc. of WWW10, 10th International World Wide Web Conference, Hong Kong (May 2001)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Romero, L., Correia, N.: HyperReal: A Hypermedia Model for Mixed Reality. In: Proc. of Hypertext 2003, Nottingham, UK, pp. 2–9 (August 2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nürnberg, P.J., schraefel, m.c: Relationships Among Structural Computing and Other Fields. Journal of Network and Computer Applications 26(1), 11–26 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Koch, N., Kraus, A.: Towards a Common Metamodel for the Development of Web Applications. In: Lovelle, J.M.C., Rodríguez, B.M.G., Gayo, J.E.L., Ruiz, M.d.P.P., Aguilar, L.J. (eds.) ICWE 2003. LNCS, vol. 2722, pp. 497–506. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Signer, B.: Fundamental Concepts for Interactive Paper and Cross-Media Information Management. PhD thesis, ETH Zurich, Switzerland (2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Norrie, M.C.: An Extended Entity-Relationship Approach to Data Management in Object-Oriented Systems. In: Proc. of ER ’93, 12th International Conference on the Entity-Relationship Approach, Arlington, USA, pp. 390–401 (1993)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kobler, A., Norrie, M.C.: OMS Java: A Persistent Object Management Framework. In: Java and Databases. Hermes Penton Science, pp. 46–62 (May 2002)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nelson, T.: Literary Machines. Mindful Press (1982)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Norrie, M.C., Signer, B., Weibel, N.: General Framework for the Rapid Development of Interactive Paper Applications. In: Proc. of CoPADD 2006, 1st International Workshop on Collaborating over Paper and Digital Documents, Banff, Canada, pp. 9–12 (2006)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Belotti, R., Decurtins, C., Norrie, M.C., Signer, B., Vukelja, L.: Experimental Platform for Mobile Information Systems. In: Proc. of MobiCom 2005, 11th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Cologne, Germany, pp. 258–269 (August 2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Signer, B., Norrie, M.C.: PaperPoint: A Paper-Based Presentation and Interactive Paper Prototyping Tool. In: Proc. of TEI 2007, First International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction, Baton Rouge, USA, pp. 57–64 (February 2007)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Norrie, M.C., Signer, B., Weibel, N.: Print-n-Link: Weaving the Paper Web. In: Proc. of DocEng 2006, ACM Symposium on Document Engineering, pp. 34–43. Amsterdam, The Netherlands (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beat Signer
    • 1
  • Moira C. Norrie
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Information Systems, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 ZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations