Advertisement

Non-invasive Brain-Actuated Interaction

  • José del R. Millán
  • Pierre W. Ferrez
  • Ferran Galán
  • Eileen Lew
  • Ricardo Chavarriaga
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4729)

Abstract

The promise of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) technology is to augment human capabilities by enabling interaction with computers through a conscious and spontaneous modulation of the brainwaves after a short training period. Indeed, by analyzing brain electrical activity online, several groups have designed brain-actuated devices that provide alternative channels for communication, entertainment and control. Thus, a person can write messages using a virtual keyboard on a computer screen and also browse the internet. Alternatively, subjects can operate simple computer games, or brain games, and interact with educational software. Work with humans has shown that it is possible for them to move a cursor and even to drive a wheelchair. This paper briefly reviews the field of BCI, with a focus on non-invasive systems based on electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. It also describes three brain-actuated devices we have developed: a virtual keyboard, a brain game, and a wheelchair. Finally, it shortly discusses current research directions we are pursuing in order to improve the performance and robustness of our BCI system, especially for real-time control of brain-actuated robots.

Keywords

Brain-computer interfaces electroencephalogram asynchronous protocols brain-actuated devices statistical classifiers feature selection 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Nicolelis, M.A.L.: Actions from Thoughts. Nature 409, 403–407 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Millán, J.d.R.: Brain-Computer Interfaces. In: Arbib, M.A. (ed.) Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, pp. 178–181. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wolpaw, J.R., Birbaumer, N., McFarland, D.J., Pfurtscheller, G., Vaughan, T.M.: Brain-Computer Interfaces for Communication and Control. Clin. Neurophysiol. 113, 767–791 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wickelgren, I.: Tapping the Mind. Science 299, 496–499 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dornhege, G., Millán, J.d.R., Hinterberger, T., McFarland, D., Müller, K.-R. (eds.): Towards Brain-Computer Interfacing. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Millán, J.d.R., Renkens, F., Mouriño, J., Gerstner, W.: Non-Invasive Brain-Actuated Control of a Mobile Robot by Human EEG. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 1026–1033 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Galán, F., Nuttin, M., Lew, E., Ferrez, P.W., Vanacker, G., Philips, J., Van Brussel, H., Millán, J.d.R.: An Asynchronous and Non-Invasive Brain-Actuated Wheelchair. In: 13th International Symposium on Robotics Research, Hirsoshima, Japan (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Millán, J.d.R., Renkens, F., Mouriño, J., Gerstner, W.: Brain-Actuated Interaction. Artif. Intell. 159, 241–259 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Millán, J.d.R.: Adaptive Brain Interfaces. Comm. ACM 46, 74–80 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Birbaumer, N., Ghanayim, N., Hinterberger, T., Iversen, I., Kotchoubey, B., Kübler, A., Perelmouter, J., Taub, E., Flor, H.: A Spelling Device for the Paralysed. Nature 398, 297–298 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Babiloni, F., Cincotti, F., Lazzarini, L., Millán, J.d.R., Mouriño, J., Varsta, M., Heikkonen, J., Bianchi, L., Marciani, M.G.: Linear Classification of Low-Resolution EEG Patterns Produced by Imagined Hand Movements. IEEE Trans. Rehab. Eng. 8, 186–188 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pfurtscheller, G., Neuper, C.: Motor Imagery and Direct Brain-Computer Communication. Proc. IEEE 89, 1123–1134 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wolpaw, J.R., McFarland, D.J.: Control of a Two-Dimensional Movement Signal by a Noninvasive Brain-Computer Interface in Humans. PNAS 101, 17849–17854 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Blankertz, B., Dornhege, G., Krauledat, M., Müller, K.R., Kunzmann, V., Losch, F., Curio, G.: The Berlin Brain-Computer Interface: EEG-based Communication without Subject Training. IEEE Trans. Neural Sys. Rehab. Eng. 14, 147–152 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Birch, G.E., Bozorgzadeh, Z., Mason, S.G.: Initial On-Line Evaluation of the LF-ASD Brain-Computer Interface with Able-Bodied and Spinal-Cord Subjects using Imagined Voluntary Motor Potentials. IEEE Trans. Neural Sys. Rehab. Eng. 10, 219–224 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Galán, F., Ferrez, P.W., Oliva, F., Guàrdia, J., Millán, J.d.R.: Feature Extraction for Multi-class BCI using Canonical Variates Analysis. In: IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing, Alcalá de Henares, Spain (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mouriño, J.: EEG-based Analysis for the Design of Adaptive Brain Interfaces. Ph.D. thesis, Centre de Recerca en Enginyeria Biomèdica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Philips, J., Millán, J.d.R., Vanacker, G., Lew, E., Galán, F., Ferrez, P.W., Van Brussel, H., Nuttin, M.: Adaptive Shared Control of a Brain-Actuated Simulated Wheelchair. In: 10th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, Noordwijk, The Netherlands (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vanacker, G., Millán, J.d.R., Lew, E., Ferrez, P.W., Galán, F., Philips, J., Van Brussel, H., Nuttin, M.: Context-based Filtering for Assisted Brain-Actuated Wheelchair Driving. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience (2007)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buttfield, A., Ferrez, P.W., Millán, J.d.R.: Towards a Robust BCI: Error Recognition and Online Learning. IEEE Trans. Neural Sys. Rehab. Eng. 14, 164–168 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Millán, J.d.R., Buttfield, A., Vidaurre, C., Krauledat, M., Schögl, A., Shenoy, P., Blankertz, B., Rao, R.P.N., Cabeza, R., Pfurtscheller, G., Müller, K.-R.: Adaptation in Brain-Computer Interfaces. In: Dornhege, G., Millán, J.d.R., Hinterberger, T., McFarland, D., Müller, K.-R. (eds.) Towards Brain-Computer Interfacing, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2007)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ferrez, P.W., Millán, J.d.R.: You Are Wrong!—Automatic Detection of Interaction Errors from Brain Waves. In: Proc. 19th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ferrez, P.W., Millán, J.d.R.: Error-Related EEG Potentials in Brain-Computer Interfaces. In: Dornhege, G., Millán, J.d.R., Hinterberger, T., McFarland, D., Müller, K.-R. (eds.) Towards Brain-Computer Interfacing, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2007)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Perrin, X., Chavarriaga, R., Siegwart, R., Millán, J.d.R.: Bayesian Controller for a Novel Semi-Autonomous Navigation Concept. In: European Conference on Mobile Robotics, Freiburg, Germany (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • José del R. Millán
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pierre W. Ferrez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ferran Galán
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eileen Lew
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ricardo Chavarriaga
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.IDIAP Research Institute, Rue du Simplon 4, 1920 MartignySwitzerland
  2. 2.Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)Switzerland

Personalised recommendations