Organization Oriented Programming: From Closed to Open Organizations

  • Olivier Boissier
  • Jomi Fred Hübner
  • Jaime Simão Sichman
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4457)


In the last years, social and organizational aspects of agency have become a major issue in multi-agent systems’ research. Recent applications of MAS enforce the need of using such aspects in order to ensure some social order within these systems. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive views of the diverse concepts, models and approaches related to agents’ organizations. Moreover, most designers have doubts about how to put these concepts in practice, i.e., how to program them. In this paper we focus on and discuss about the literature on formal, top-down and pre-existent organizations by stressing the different aspects that may be considered to program them. Finally, we present some challenges for future research considering particularly the openness feature of those agents’ organizations.


Multi-agent Systems MAS organizations Open systems 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bellifemine, F., Bergenti, F., Caire, G., Poggi, A.: JADE – a java agent development framework. In: Bordini, R.H., Dastani, M., Dix, J., El Fallah Seghrouchni, A. (eds.) Multi-Agent Programming: Languages, Platforms, and Applications, number 15 in Multiagent Systems, Artificial Societies, and Simulated Organizations, vol. 5, Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bergenti, F., Gleizes, M.P., Zambonelli, F.: Methodologies and Software Engineering for Agent Systems. Kluwer, Dordrecht (2004)MATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bernoux, P.: La sociologie des organisations. Seuil, 3ème edn. (October 1985)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boissier, O., Padget, J., Dignum, V., Lindemann, G., Matson, E., Ossowski, S., Sichman, J.S., Vázquez-Salceda, J. (eds.): Coordination, Organizations, Institutions, and Norms in Multi-Agent Systems. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3913, pp. 25–26. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Castelfranchi, C.: Modeling social action for AI agents. Artificial Intelligence 103, 157–182 (1998)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Corkill, D.D.: A Framework for Organizational Self-Design in Distributed Problem Solving Networks. PhD thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (1983)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Decker, K.S., Lesser, V.: Designing a family of coordination algorithms. Umass computer science technical report 1994-14, Department of Computer Science, University of Massachusetts, 1995. UMAss Computer Science Technical Report 1994-14Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Drogoul, A., Corbara, B., Lalande, S.: MANTA: New experimental results on the emergence of (artificial) ant societies. In: Gilbert, N., Conte, R. (eds.) Artificial Societies: the Computer Simulation of Social Life, pp. 119–221. UCL Press, London (1995)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Esteva, M., Padget, J., Sierra, C.: Formalizing a language for institutions and norms. In: Meyer, J.-J.C., Tambe, M. (eds.) ATAL 2001. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2333, pp. 348–366. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Esteva, M., Rodríguez-Aguilar, J.A., Rosel, B., Joseph, L.: AMELI: An agent-based middleware for electronic institutions. In: Jennings, N.R., Sierra, C., Sonenberg, L., Tambe, M. (eds.) AAMAS 2004. Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, pp. 236–243. ACM, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ferber, J., Gutknecht, O., Michel, F.: From agents to organizations: an organizational view of multi-agent systems. In: Giorgini, P., Müller, J.P., Odell, J.J. (eds.) Agent-Oriented Software Engineering IV. LNCS, vol. 2935, Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ferber, J., Michel, F., Baez, J.: AGRE: Integrating environments with organizations. In: Weyns, D., Parunak, H.V.D., Michel, F. (eds.) E4MAS 2004. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3374, pp. 48–56. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ferber, J., Gutknecht, O.: A meta-model for the analysis and design of organizations in multi-agents systems. In: Demazeau, Y. (ed.) ICMAS 1998. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems, pp. 128–135. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (1998)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fox, M.S.: An organizational view of distributed systems. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 11(1), 70–80 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gasser, L.: Organizations in multi-agent systems. In: MAAMAW 2001. Pre-Proceeding of the 10th European Worshop on Modeling Autonomous Agents in a Multi-Agent World, Annecy (2001)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gâteau, B., Boissier, O., Khadraoui, D., Dubois, E.: Moiseinst: An organizational model for specifying rights and duties of autonomous agents. In: EUMAS 2005. Third European Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems, Brussels Belgium, December 7-8, 2005, pp. 484–485 (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grosz, B.J., Kraus, S.: Collaborative plans for complex group action. Artificial Intelligence 86, 269–357 (1996)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gutknecht, O., Ferber, J.: The MadKit agent platform architecture. In: Agents Workshop on Infrastructure for Multi-Agent Systems, pp. 48–55 (2000)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Horling, B., Benyo, B., Lesser, V.: Using self-diagnosis to adapt organizational structures. In: ICMAS 2000. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on MultiAgent Systems, pp. 397–398. IEEE, Los Alamitos, CA (2000)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hübner, J.F., Sichman, J.S., Boissier, O.: A model for the structural, functional, and deontic specification of organizations in multiagent systems. In: Bittencourt, G., Ramalho, G.L. (eds.) SBIA 2002. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2507, pp. 118–128. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hübner, J.F., Sichman, J.S., Boissier, O.: Using the \(\mathcal{M}\) oise  +  for a cooperative framework of MAS reorganisation. In: Bazzan, A.L.C., Labidi, S. (eds.) SBIA 2004. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3171, pp. 506–515. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hübner, J.F., Sichman, J.S., Boissier, O.: \(\mathcal{S}\)-\(\mathcal{M}\) oise  + : A middleware for developing organised multi-agent systems. In: Boissier, O., Padget, J., Dignum, V., Lindemann, G., Matson, E., Ossowski, S., Sichman, J.S., Vázquez-Salceda, J. (eds.) Coordination, Organizations, Institutions, and Norms in Multi-Agent Systems. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3913, Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Iglesias, C., Garrijo, M., Gonzalez, J.: A survey of agent-oriented methodologies. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Intelligent Agents V: Agent Theories, pp. 317–330. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boissier, O., Coutinho, L., Sichman, J.S.: Modeling dimensions for multi-agent systems organizations. In: Dignum, V., Dignum, F., Edmonds, B., Matson, E. (eds.) Agent Organizations: Models and Simulations (AOMS), Workshop held at IJCAI 07 (2007)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lemaître, C., Excelente, C.B.: Multi-agent organization approach. In: Garijo, F.J., Lemaître, C. (eds.) Proceedings of II Iberoamerican Workshop on DAI and MAS (1998)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lesser, V., Decker, K., Wagner, T., Carver, N., Garvey, A., Horling, B., Neiman, D., Podorozhny, R., NagendraPrasad, M., Raja, A., Vincent, R., Xuan, P., Zhang, X.Q.: Evolution of the gpgp/taems domain-independent coordination framework. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 9(1), 87–143 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Levesque, H.J., Cohen, P.R., Nunes, J.H.T.: On acting together. In: Dietterich, T., Swartout, W. (eds.) AAAI-90. Proceeding of the Eight National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Menlo Park, pp. 94–99. AAAI Press / MIT Press (1990)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Modeling Autonomous Agents in a Multi-Agent World (MAAMAW 2001). In: MAAMAW 2001. Pre-Proceeding of the 10th European Workshop on Modeling Autonomous Agents in a Multi-Agent World (2001)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Omicini, A., Ricci, A., Goldin, D.: Introduction to the workshop. In: TAPOCS 2004. Second InternationalWorkshop on Theory and Practice of Open Computational Systems (2004)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Picard, G., Glize, P.: Model and Analysis of Local Decision Based on Cooperative Self-Organization for Problem Solving. Multiagent and Grid Systems 2(3), 253–265 (2006)MATHGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pynadath, D.V., Tambe, M.: An automated teamwork infrastructure for heterogeneous software agents and humans. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 7(1–2), 71–100 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Scott, W.R.: Organizations: rational, natural and open systems, 4th edn. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1998)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sichman, J.S., Conte, R., Demazeau, Y., Castelfranchi, C.: A social reasoning mechanism based on dependence networks. In: Cohn, T. (ed.) Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 188–192 (1994)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vázquez-Salceda, J., Aldewereld, H., Dignum, F.: Norms in multiagent systems: some implementation guidelines. In: EUMAS 2004. Proceedings of the Second European Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems (2004)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vincent, R., Horling, B., Lesser, V.: An Agent Infrastructure to Build and Evaluate Multi-Agent Systems: The Java Agent Framework and Multi-Agent System Simulator. In: Wagner, T.A., Rana, O.F. (eds.) Infrastructure for Agents, Multi-Agent Systems, and Scalable Multi-Agent Systems. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1887, pp. 102–127. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olivier Boissier
    • 1
  • Jomi Fred Hübner
    • 2
  • Jaime Simão Sichman
    • 3
  1. 1.SMA/G2I/ENSM.SE, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne CedexFrance
  2. 2.GIA/DSC/FURB, Braz Wanka, 238, 89035-160, BlumenauBrazil
  3. 3.LTI/EP/USP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 158, trav. 3, 05508-900 São Paulo, SPBrazil

Personalised recommendations