Advertisement

A Robot System for Biomimetic Navigation – From Snapshots to Metric Embeddings of View Graphs

  • Matthias O. Franz
  • Wolfgang Stürzl
  • Wolfgang Hübner
  • Hanspeter A. Mallot
Part of the Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics book series (STAR, volume 38)

Abstract

Complex navigation behaviour (way-finding) involves recognizing several places and encoding a spatial relationship between them. Way-finding skills can be classified into a hierarchy according to the complexity of the tasks that can be performed [8]. The most basic form of way-finding is route navigation, followed by topological navigation where several routes are integrated into a graph-like representation. The highest level, survey navigation, is reached when this graph can be embedded into a common reference frame.

In this chapter, we present the building blocks for a biomimetic robot navigation system that encompasses all levels of this hierarchy. As a local navigation method, we use scene-based homing. In this scheme, a goal location is characterized either by a panoramic snapshot of the light intensities as seen from the place, or by a record of the distances to the surrounding objects. The goal is found by moving in the direction that minimizes the discrepancy between the recorded intensities or distances and the current sensory input. For learning routes, the robot selects distinct views during exploration that are close enough to be reached by snapshot-based homing. When it encounters already visited places during route learning, it connects the routes and thus forms a topological representation of its environment termed a view graph. The final stage, survey navigation, is achieved by a graph embedding procedure which complements the topologic information of the view graph with odometric position estimates. Calculation of the graph embedding is done with a modified multidimensional scaling algorithm which makes use of distances and angles between nodes.

Keywords

Mobile Robot Robot System View Graph Exploration Direction View Distance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Borenstein, J., Feng, L.: Measurement and correction of systematic odometry errors in mobile robots. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation 12(5) (1996)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Borg, I., Groenen, P.: Modern Multidimensional Scaling. Springer, New York (1997)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cartwright, B.A., Collett, T.S.: Landmark learning in bees. J. Comp. Physiol. A 151, 521–543 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cheng, K.: A purely geometric module in the rat’s spatial representation. Cognition 23, 149–178 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Collett, T.S.: Landmark learning and guidance in insects. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 337, 295–303 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Collett, T.S., Cartwright, B.A., Smith, B.A.: Landmark learning and visuo-spatial memories in gerbils. J. Comp. Physiol. A 158, 835–851 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Duckett, T., Marsland, S., Shapiro, J.: Fast, on–line learning of globally consistent maps. Autonomous Robots (12), 287–300 (2002)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Franz, M.O., Mallot, H.A.: Biomimetic robot navigation. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 30, 133–153 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Franz, M.O., Schölkopf, B., Mallot, H.A., Bülthoff, H.H.: Learning view graphs for robot navigation. Autonomous Robots 5, 111–125 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Franz, M.O., Schölkopf, B., Mallot, H.A., Bülthoff, H.H.: Where did I take that snapshot? Scene-based homing by image matching. Biol. Cybern. 79, 191–202 (1998)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frese, U., Duckett, T.: A multigrid approach for accelerating relaxation-based slam. In: RUR 2003. Proc. IJCAI Workshop on Reasoning with Uncertainty in Robotics, pp. 39–46 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Frese, U., Hirzinger, G.: Simultaneous localization and mapping – a discussion. In: Fox, D., Saffiotti, A. (eds.) RUR 2001. Proceedings of the IJCAI–2001 Workshop on Reasoning with Uncertainty in Robotics (2001)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Golfarelli, M., Maio, D., Rizzi, S.: Elastic correction of dead–reckoning errors in map building. In: IROS 1998. Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Victoria, Canada, pp. 905–911 (1998)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hermer, L., Spelke, E.S.: A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. Nature 370, 57–59 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hübner, W., Mallot, H.A.: Integration of metric place relations in a landmark graph. In: Dorronsoro, J.R. (ed.) ICANN 2002. LNCS, vol. 2415, pp. 825–830. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lu, F., Milios, E.: Globally consistent range scan alignment for environment mapping. Autonomous Robots 4, 333–349 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mallot, H.A.: Behavior-oriented approaches to cognition: Theoretical perspectives. Theory in Biosciences 116, 192–220 (1997)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Owen, C., Nehmzow, U.: Landmark-based navigation for a mobile robot. In: Pfeifer, R., Blumberg, B., Meyer, J.-A., Wilson, S.W. (eds.) From animals to animats. Proc. SAB 1998, vol. 5, pp. 145–240. MIT Press, Cambridge, London (1998)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Prescott, T.J.: Spatial representation for navigation in animats. Adaptive Behaviour 4, 85–123 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schölkopf, B., Mallot, H.A.: View-based cognitive mapping and path planning. Adaptive Behavior 3, 311–348 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stürzl, W., Mallot, H.A.: Vision-based homing with a panoramic stereo sensor. In: Bülthoff, H.H., Lee, S.-W., Poggio, T.A., Wallraven, C. (eds.) BMCV 2002. LNCS, vol. 2525, pp. 620–628. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Trullier, O., Wiener, S.I., Berthoz, A., Meyer, J.-A.: Biologically based artificial navigation systems: review and prospects. Progress in Neurobiology 51, 483–544 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    West, D.B.: Introduction to graph theory. Prentice–Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs (1996)zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthias O. Franz
  • Wolfgang Stürzl
  • Wolfgang Hübner
  • Hanspeter A. Mallot

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations