Interpretation and Normalization of Temporal Expressions for Question Answering

  • Sven Hartrumpf
  • Johannes Leveling
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4730)


The German question answering (QA) system InSicht participated in QA@CLEF for the third time. InSicht implements a deep QA approach: it builds on full sentence parses, inferences on semantic representations, and matching semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InSicht was improved for QA@CLEF 2006 as follows: temporal expressions are normalized and temporal deictic expressions are resolved to explicit date representations; the coreference module was extended by a fallback strategy for increased robustness; equivalence rules can introduce negated relations; answer candidates are clustered in order to avoid multiple occurrences of one real-world entity in the answers to a list question; and finally a shallow QA subsystem that produces a second answer stream was integrated into InSicht. The current system is evaluated in an ablation study on the German questions from QA@CLEF 2006.


Semantic Representation Temporal Expression Semantic Network Question Answering Coreference Resolution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sven Hartrumpf
    • 1
  • Johannes Leveling
    • 1
  1. 1.Intelligent Information and Communication Systems (IICS), University of Hagen (FernUniversität in Hagen), 58084 HagenGermany

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