Advertisement

A Multi-method Approach to the Assessment of Web Page Designs

  • S. J. Westerman
  • E. J. Sutherland
  • L. Robinson
  • H. Powell
  • G. Tuck
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4738)

Abstract

This study used self-report, facial EMG, galvanic skin response, and eye tracking to assess users’ participants’ responses to two charity web sites. For each site, page content and colour of presentation (colour versus black & white) were manipulated. Results support the utility and diversity of these measures. Each provided information about users’ responses to web page designs, with a good deal of variation in sensitivity to experimental manipulations. In combination the data from these measures allowed further inferences to be drawn, supporting a multi-dimensional view of user experience and the need for multi-method approaches to evaluation.

Keywords

Positive Affect Fixation Duration Galvanic Skin Response Affective Computing Colour Manipulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Picard, R.W.: Affective Computing. MIT Press, Cambridge (1997)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dillon, A.: Beyond usability: Process, outcome, and affect in human-computer interactions. The Canadian, Journal of Information and Library Science 26(4), 57–69 (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hassenzahl, M., Tractinsky, N.: User experience - a research agenda. Behaviour & Information Technology 25, 91–97 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    ISO 9241-11: Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs). Part 11: Guidance on Usability. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva (1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Davis, F.D.: Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly 13, 318–340 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bailey, J.E., Pearson, S.W.: Development of a tool for measuring and analysing computer user satisfaction. Management Science 29, 530–545 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hassenzahl, M.: The interplay of beauty, goodness, and usability of interactive products. Human-Computer Interaction 19, 319–349 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huang, M.-H.: Designing website attributes to induce experiential encounters. Computers in Human Behavior 19, 425–442 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huang, M.-H.: Web performance scale. Information & Management 42, 841–852 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hornbaek, K.: Current practice in measuring usability: Challenges to usability studies and research. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 64, 79–102 (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Annett, J.: Subjective rating scales: Science or art? Ergonomics 45, 966–987 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Veryzer, R.W.: A nonconscious processing explanation of consumer response to product design. Psychology & Marketing 16, 497–522 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nisbett, R.E., Wilson, T.D.: Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review 84, 231–259 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Winkielman, P., Cacioppo, J.T.: Mind at ease puts a smile on the face: Psychophysiological evidence that processing facilitiation elicits positive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81, 989–1000 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Scheirer, J., Fernandez, R., Klein, J., Picard, R.W.: Frustrating the user on purpose: A step toward building an affective computer. Interacting with Computers 14, 93–118 (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ward, R.D., Marsden, P.H.: Physiological responses to different web page designs. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 59, 199–213 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Branco, P., Firth, P., Encarnaçăo, M., Bonato, P.: Faces of emotion in human-computer interaction. In: CHI 2005, pp. 2–7. ACM Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hazlett, R.: Measurement of user frustration: A biologic approach. In: CHI 2003, April 5-10, ACM, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hazlett, R.L., Benedek, J.: Measuring emotional valence to understand the users’ experience of software. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 65, 306–314 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Russell, J.A.: Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review 110, 145–172 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Westerman, S.J., Gardner, P.H., Sutherland, E.J.: Taxonomy of Affective Systems Usability Testing. HUMAINE EC Network of Excellence project report D9g (2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Duchowski, A.T.: Eye Tracking Methodology: Theory and Practice. Springer, London (2003)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liversedge, S.P., Findlay, J.M.: Saccadic eye movements and cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4, 6–14 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pan, B., Hembroke, H.A., Gay, G.K., Granka, L.A., Feusner, M.K., Newman, J.K.: The determinants of web page viewing behaviour: An eye tracking study. In: Proceedings of Eye Tracking Research and Applications. SIGGRAPH, pp. 147–154. ACM, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rudmann, D.S., McConkie, G.W., Zheng, X.S.: Eye tracking in cognitive state detection for HCI. In: Proceedings of ICMI 2003, pp. 159–163 (2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Goldberg, J.H., Stimson, M.J., Lewenstein, M., Scott, N., Wichansky, A.M: Eye tracking in web search tasks: Design implications. In: Proceedings of ETRA 2002, pp. 51–58. ACM, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bojko, A.: Using eye tracking to compare web page designs: A case study. Journal of Usability Studies 3, 112–120 (2006)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rayner, K.: Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin 124, 372–422 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Calvo, M.G., Lang, P.J.: Gaze patterns when looking at emotional pictures: Motivationally biased attention. Motivation and Emotion 28, 221–243 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Westerman, S.J., Sutherland, E.J., Powell, H., Robinson, L., Tuck, G.: Users’ responses to alternative website designs: A framework and psychometric assessment (unpublished manuscript)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dillon, A.: Beyond usability: Process, outcome, and affect in human-computer interactions. The Canadian, Journal of Information and Library Science 26(4), 57–69 (2001)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hassenzahl, M., Tractinsky, N.: User experience - a research agenda. Behaviour & Information Technology 25, 91–97 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Valdez, P., Mehrabian, A.: Effects of colour on emotions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 123(4), 394–409 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wilson, G.D.: Arousal properties of red versus green. Perceptual and Motor Skills 23, 947–949 (1966)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jacons, K.W., Hustmyer, F.E.: Effects of four psychological primary colours on GSR, heart rate and respiration rate. Perceptual and Motor Skills 38, 763–766 (1974)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Calwell, J.A., Jones, G.E.: The effects of exposure to red and blue light on physiological indices and time estimation. Perception 14, 19–29 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Robinson, W.S.: Colours, arousal, functionalism, and individual differences. Psyche, 10, 2 (2004), http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/
  38. 38.
    Renshaw, J.A., Finlay, J.E., Tyfa, D., Ward, R.D.: Understanding visual influence in graph design through temporal and spatial eye movement characteristics. Interacting with Computers 16, 557–578 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. J. Westerman
    • 1
  • E. J. Sutherland
    • 1
  • L. Robinson
    • 1
  • H. Powell
    • 1
  • G. Tuck
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Psychological Sciences,University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JTU.K.

Personalised recommendations