Harmony Search Algorithm for Solving Sudoku

  • Zong Woo Geem
Conference paper

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-74819-9_46

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4692)
Cite this paper as:
Geem Z.W. (2007) Harmony Search Algorithm for Solving Sudoku. In: Apolloni B., Howlett R.J., Jain L. (eds) Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems. KES 2007. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 4692. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg


Harmony search (HS) algorithm was applied to solving Sudoku puzzle. The HS is an evolutionary algorithm which mimics musicians’ behaviors such as random play, memory-based play, and pitch-adjusted play when they perform improvisation. Sudoku puzzles in this study were formulated as an optimization problem with number-uniqueness penalties. HS could successfully solve the optimization problem after 285 function evaluations, taking 9 seconds. Also, sensitivity analysis of HS parameters was performed to obtain a better idea of algorithm parameter values.


Sudoku puzzle harmony search combinatorial optimization 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zong Woo Geem
    • 1
  1. 1.Johns Hopkins University, Environmental Planning and Management Program, 729 Fallsgrove Drive #6133, Rockville, Maryland 20850USA

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