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NO/cGMP-Dependent Modulation of Synaptic Transmission

  • Robert Feil
  • Thomas Kleppisch
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 184)

Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional messenger in the CNS that can signal both in antero- and retrograde directions across synapses. Many effects of NO are mediated through its canonical receptor, the soluble guanylyl cyclase, and the second messenger cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP). An increase of cGMP can also arise independently of NO via activation of membrane-bound particulate guanylyl cyclases by natriuretic peptides. The classical targets of cGMP are cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs), cyclic nucleotide hydrolysing phosphodiesterases, and cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) cation channels. The NO/cGMP/cGK signalling cascade has been linked to the modulation of transmitter release and synaptic plasticity by numerous pharmacological and genetic studies. This review focuses on the role of NO as a retrograde messenger in long-term potentiation of transmitter release in the hippocampus. Presynaptic mechanisms of NO/cGMP/cGK signalling will be discussed with recently identified potential downstream components such as CaMKII, the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, and regulators of G protein signalling. NO has further been suggested to increase transmitter release through presynaptic clustering of a-synuclein. Alternative modes of NO/cGMP signalling resulting in inhibition of transmitter release and long-term depression of synaptic activity will also be addressed, as well as anterograde NO signalling in the cerebellum. Finally, emerging evidence for cGMP signalling through CNG channels and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels will be discussed.

Keywords

Nitric Oxide Transmitter Release Guanylyl Cyclase Retrograde Messenger Schaffer Collateral Pathway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Feil
    • 1
  • Thomas Kleppisch
    • 2
  1. 1.Interfakultäres Institut für BiochemieUniversität TübingenMünchenGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Pharmakologie und ToxikologieTechnische Universität MüunchenMünchenGermany

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