Prepositions and Conjunctions in a Natural Language Interfaces to Databases

  • J. Javier González B.
  • Rodolfo A. Pazos R.
  • Alexander Gelbukh
  • Grigori Sidorov
  • Hector Fraire H.
  • I. Cristina Cruz C.
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4743)


This paper present the treatment of prepositions and conjunctions in natural language interfaces to databases (NLIDB) that allows better translation of queries expressed in natural language into formal languages. Prepositions and conjunctions weren’t sufficiently studied for their usage in NLIDBs, because most of the NLIDBs just look for keywords in the sentences and focus their analysis on nouns and verbs getting rid of auxiliary words in the query. This paper shows that prepositions and conjunctions can be represented as operations using formal set theory. Additionally, since prepositions and conjunctions keep their meaning in any context, their treatment is domain independent. In our experiments we used Spanish language. We validate our approach using two databases; Northwind and Pubs of SQL Server, with a corpus of 198 different queries for the first one and 70 queries for the second one. The 84% of queries were translated correctly for the database Northwind and 80% for Pubs.


Computational Linguistics Structure Query Language Invariant Part Translation Module Syntactic Relation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Javier González B.
    • 1
  • Rodolfo A. Pazos R.
    • 2
  • Alexander Gelbukh
    • 3
  • Grigori Sidorov
    • 3
  • Hector Fraire H.
    • 1
  • I. Cristina Cruz C.
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Tecnológico de Ciudad MaderoMéxico
  2. 2.Centro Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico (CENIDET)México
  3. 3.Centro de Investigación en Computación 

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