Advertisement

The authorities of the scientific species names are only added in the text of Sect. 3.1-Sect. 3.5 if a species is not involved in Table 3.1 (Solanaceae) and Table 3.2 (Convolvulaceae), respectively, where the authorities of the corresponding other species may be found.

Keywords

Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Tropane Alkaloid Datura Stramonium Tobacco Alkaloid Tropic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abraham TW, Leete E (1995) New intermediate in the biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloids in Datura innoxia. J Am Chem Soc 117:8100–8105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achenbach H, Fietz W, Wörth J, Waibel R, Portecop J (1986) Constituents of tropical medicinal plants: IXX. GC/MS-investigations of the constituents of Piper amalago: 30 new amides of the piperine-type. Planta Med. 52:12–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adesanya SA, Nia R, Fontaine C, Pais M (1994) Pyrazole alkaloids from Newbouldia laevis. Phytochemistry 35:1053–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad A, Leete E (1970) Biosynthesis of the tropine moiety of hyoscyamine from δ-N-methylornithine. Phytochemistry 9:2345–2347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Said MS, Evans WC, Grout RJ (1986) Alkaloids of Erythroxylum macrocarpum and E. sideroxyloides. Phytochemistry 25:851–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersen RA, Fleming PD, Burton HR, Hamilton-Kemp TR, Sutton TG (1989) Nʹ-Acyl and Nʹ-nitroso pyridine alkaloids in alkaloid lines of burley tobacco during growth and air-curing. J Agric Food Chem 37:44–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersson C, Ahman A (2004) Calystegines – danger in potatoes? Vaar Foeda 56:24–27Google Scholar
  8. Aripova SF (1985) Convolamine N-oxide from Convolvulus krauseanus. Khim Prir Soedin 275Google Scholar
  9. Aripova SF, Abdilalimov O (1993) Convolacine – a new alkaloid from Convolvulus subhirsutus. Khim Prir Soedin:88–90Google Scholar
  10. Aripova SF, Yunusov SY (1979) Alkaloids of the epigeal part of Convolvulus krauseanus. Khim Prir Soedin:527–529Google Scholar
  11. Aripova SF, Yunusov SY (1986a) Structure of Convosine. Khim Prir Soedin:618–620Google Scholar
  12. Aripova SF, Yunusov SY (1986b) Convolvidine, a native alkaloid of Convolvulus subhirsutus. Khim Prir Soedin:657–658Google Scholar
  13. Aripova SF, Malikov VM, Yunusov SY (1972) Alkaloids of Convolvulus. Khim Prir Soedin:401–402Google Scholar
  14. Aripova SF, Malikov VM, Yunusov SY (1977) Convolidine – a new alkaloid from Convolvulus krauseanus. Khim Prir Soedin:290–291Google Scholar
  15. Aripova SF, Sharova EG, Abdullaev UA, Yunusov SY (1983) A new alkaloid from Convolvulus krauseanus. Khim Prir Soedin:749–751Google Scholar
  16. Armstrong DW, Wang X, Lee JT, Liu YS (1999) Enantiomeric composition of nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine in tobacco. Chirality 11:82–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Asano N, Tomioka E, Kizu H, Matsui K (1994a) Sugars with nitrogen in the ring isolated from the leaves of Morus bombycis. Carbohydr Res 253:235–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Asano N, Oseki K, Tomioka E, Kizu H, Matsui K (1994b) N-Containing sugars from Morus alba and their glycosidase inhibitory activities. Carbohydr Res 259:243–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Asano N, Kato A, Oseki K, Kizu H, Matsui K (1995) Calystegines of Physalis alkekengi var. francheti (Solanaceae) – structure determination and their glycosidase inhibitory activities. Eur J Biochem 229:369–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Asano N, Kato A, Yokoyama Y, Miyauchi M, Yamamoto M, Kizu H, Matsui K (1996a) Calystegine N1, a novel nortropane alkaloid with a bridgehead amino group from Hyoscyamus niger: structure determination and glycosidase inhibitory activities. Carbohydr Res 284:169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Asano N, Kato A, Kizu H, Matsui K, Watson AA, Nash RJ (1996b) Calystegine B4, a novel trehelase inhibitor from Scopolia japonica. Carbohydr Res 293:195–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Asano N, Kato A, Kizu H, Matsui K (1996c) 1β-Amino-2α,3β,5β-trihydroxycycloheptane from Physalis alkekengi var. francheti. Phytochemistry 42:719–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Asano N, Kato A, Miyauchi M, Kizu H, Tomimori T, Matsui K, Nash RJ, Molyneux RJ (1997a) Specific α-galactosidase inhibitors, N-methylcalystegines – structure/activity relationships of calystegines from Lycium chinense. Eur J Biochem 248:296–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Asano N, Kato A, Matsui K, Watson AA, Nash RJ, Molyneux RJ, Hackett L, Topping J, Winchester B (1997b) The effects of calystegines isolated from edible fruits and vegetables on mammalian liver glycosidases. Glycobiology 7:1085–1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Asano N, Nash RJ, Molyneux RJ, Fleet GWJ, (2000) Sugar-mimic glycosidase inhibitors: natural occurrence, biological activity and properties for therapeutic application. Tetrahedron Asymm 11:1645–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Asano N, Yokoyama K, Sakurai M, Ikeda K, Kizu H, Kato A, Arisawa M, Höke D, Dräger B, Watson AA, Nash RJ (2001) Dihydroxynortropane alkaloids from calystegine-producing plants. Phytochemistry 57:721–726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Atal CK, Culvenor CC, Sawhney RS, Smith LW (1969) Alkaloids of Crotalaria grahamiana. Grahamine, the 3ʹ-[(−)-2-methylbutyryl] ester of monocrotaline. Austral J Chem 22:1773–1777Google Scholar
  28. Austin DF (2004) Florida ethnobotany. CRC Press, Boca Raton (FL), USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Austin DF, Eich E (2001) Synopsis of Stictocardia with another Madagascan species, S. mojangensis (Convolvulaceae) Willdenowia 31:79–85Google Scholar
  30. Austin DF, Staples GW (1980) Xenostegia, a new genus of Convolvulaceae. Brittonia 32:533–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bachmann P, Witte L., Wright A, Wray V (1997) Two new classes of tropane alkaloids: tropanol esters of 3-(1-carboxy-vinyloxy)-benzoic acid and nicotinic acid from plants of the genus Cochlearia (Brassicaceae). 45th Annual Congress of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research, Regensburg/Germany, Book of Abstracts, Abstracts of Posters:C03 (complete poster seen)Google Scholar
  32. Baker RR (1999) Smoke chemistry. In: Davis DL, Nielsen MT (eds) Tobacco – production, chemistry and technology. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, pp 398–439Google Scholar
  33. Balasubrahmanyam SN, Quin LD (1962) Pyrolytic degradation of nornicotine and myosmine. Tobacco International 6:133–136Google Scholar
  34. Baldwin IT (1988) Damage-induced alkaloids in tobacco: pot-bound plants are not inducible. J Chem Ecol 14:1113–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Baldwin IT (1989) Mechanism of damage-induced alkaloid production in wild tobacco. J Chem Ecol 15:1661–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Baldwin IT (1999) Inducible nicotine production in native Nicotiana as an example of adaptive phenotypic plasticity. J Chem Ecol 25:3–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Baldwin IT (2001) An ecologically motivated analysis of plant-herbivore interactions in native tobacco (Update on Nicotiana attenuata). Plant Physiol 127:1449–1458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Baralle FE, Gros EG (1969) Biosynthesis of cuscohygrine and hyoscyamine in Atropa belladonna from DL-α-N-methylornithine-methyl-3H and DL-δ-N-methylornithine-methyl-3H. J Chem Soc, Chem Commun 721Google Scholar
  39. Barbieri RL, York CM, Cherry ML, Ryan KJ (1987) The effects of nicotine, cotinine and anabasine on rat adrenal 11β-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase. J Steroid Biochem 28:25–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Barbieri RL, Friedman AJ, Osathanondh R (1989) Cotinine and nicotine inhibit human fetal adrenal 11β-hydroxylase. J Clin Endocrin Metabol 69:1221–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Barbosa P, Saunders JA, Kemper J, Trumbule R, Olechno J, Martinat P (1986) Plant allelochemicals and insect parasitoids. Effects of nicotine on Cotesia congregata SAY (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Hyposoter annulipes CRESSON (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). J Chem Ecol 12:1319–1328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Barbosa P, Gross P, Kemper J (1991) Influence of plant allelochemicals on the tobacco hornworm and its parasitoid, Cotesia congregata. Ecology 72:1567–1575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Barger G, Martin WF, Mitchell W (1937) Minor alkaloids of Duboisia myoporoides. J Chem Soc 1820–1823Google Scholar
  44. Barger G, Martin WF, Mitchell W (1938) Minor alkaloids of Duboisia myoporoides. II. Poridine and isoporoidine. J Chem Soc 1685–1690Google Scholar
  45. Barral (1847) Empirical formula of nicotine. Ann Chim et Phys 20:345; fide Czapek (1925), p 277Google Scholar
  46. Bartholomeusz TA, Bhogal RK, Molinié R, Felpin FX, Mathé-Allainmat M, Meier AC, Dräger B, Lebreton J, Roscher A, Robins RJ, Mesnard F (2005) Nicotine demethylation in Nicotiana cell suspension cultures: Nʹ-formylnicotine is not involved. Phytochemistry 66:2432–2440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Basey K, Woolley JG (1973a) Biosynthesis of the tigloyl esters in Datura. Role of 2-methylbutyric acid. Phytochemistry 12:2197–2201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Basey K, Woolley JG (1973b) Biosynthesis of the tigloyl esters in Datura. Cis-trans isomerism. Phytochemistry 12:2883–2886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Basey K, Woolley JG (1973c) Alkaloids of Physalis alkekengi. Phytochemistry 12:2557–2559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Basey K, Woolley JG (1975) Biosynthesis of ditigloyl esters of di- and trihydroxytropanes in Datura. Phytochemistry 14:2201–2203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Basey K, McGaw BA, Woolley JG (1992) Phygrine, an alkaloid from Physalis species. Phytochemistry 31:4173–4176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Batra PP, Gleason RM Jr, Louda JW (1973) Cyclization of lycopene in the biosynthesis of ß-carotene. Phytochemistry 12:1309–1313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Bekkouche K, Daali Y, Cherkaoui S, Veuthey JL, Christen P (2001) Calystegine distribution in some solanaceous species. Phytochemistry 58:455–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Bentz JA, Barbosa P (1992) Effects of dietary nicotine and partial starvation of tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, on the survival and development of the parasitoid Cotesia congregata. Entomol Exp Appl 65:241–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Beresford PJ, Woolley JG (1974) 6β-(2-Methylbutanoyloxy) tropan-3α-ol, a new alkaloid from Datura ceratocaula. Structure and biosynthesis. Phytochemistry 13:2511–2513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Berkov S (2003) Alkaloids of Datura ceratocaula. Z Naturforsch 58c:455–458Google Scholar
  57. Berkov S, Zayed R (2004) Comparison of tropane alkaloid spectra between Datura inoxia grown in Egypt and Bulgaria. Z Naturforsch 59c:184–186Google Scholar
  58. Berkov S, Pavlov A, Kovatcheva P, Stanimirova P, Philipov S (2003) Alkaloid spectrum in diploid and tetraploid hairy root cultures of Datura stramonium. Z Naturforsch 58c:42–46Google Scholar
  59. Berkov S, Doncheva T, Philipov S, Alexandrov K (2005) Ontogenetic variation of the tropane alkaloids in Datura stramonium. Biochem Syst Ecol 33:1017–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Bernardini L (1931a) The recovery of nicotine from leaves and other scrap in the manufacture of tobacco. Industria Chimica (Rome) 6:395–402Google Scholar
  61. Bernardini L (1931b) The manufacture of nicotine sulphate. Industria Chimica (Rome) 6: 497–503Google Scholar
  62. Bhatt ID, Chang JI, Hiraoka N (2004) In vitro propagation and storage of Brugmansia versicolor LAGERHEIM. Plant Biotechnol (Tokyo, Japan) 21:237–241Google Scholar
  63. Bick IRC, Bremner JB, Gilllard JW, Winzenberg KN (1974) Alkaloids of Anthocercis tasmanica. Austral J Chem 27:2515–2518Google Scholar
  64. Blaim K (1962) Zur Frage des Vorkommens von Nikotin in Pflanzen. Flora 152:171–172Google Scholar
  65. Blair BW (1999) Insects and their management in tobacco production. In: Davis DL, Nielsen MT (eds) Tobacco – production, chemistry and technology. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 228–240Google Scholar
  66. Blum MS (1983) Detoxification, deactivation and utilisation of plant compounds by insects. In: Hedin PA (ed) Plant resistance to insects. Am Chem Soc, Washington DC, pp 265–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Bodendorf K, Kummer H (1962) Über die Alkaloide von Latua venenosa. Pharm Zentralhalle 101:620–622Google Scholar
  68. Bolt AJN (1972) 1′-Hexanoylnornicotine and 1′-octanoylnornicotine from tobacco. Phytochemistry 11:2341–2343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Boswell HD, Dräger B, Eagles J, McClintock C, Parr A, Portsteffen A, Robins DJ, Robins RJ, Walton NJ, Wong C (1999) Metabolism of N-alkyldiamines and N-alkylnortropinones by transformed root cultures of Nicotiana and Brugmansia. Phytochemistry 52:855–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Bottomley W, White DE (1951) The chemistry of western Australian plants. IV. Duboisia hopwoodii. Austral J Sci Res 4A:107–111Google Scholar
  71. Bottomley W, Nottle RA, White DE (1945) The alkaloids of Duboisia hopwoodii. Austral J Sci 8:18–19Google Scholar
  72. Bramer SL, Kallungal BA (2003) Clinical considerations in study designs that use cotitine as a biomarker. Biomarkers 8:187–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Brock A, Bieri S, Christen P, Dräger B (2005) Calystegines in wild and cultivated Erythroxylum species. Phytochemistry 66:1231–1240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Brock A, Herzfeld T, Paschke R, Koch M, Dräger B (2006) Brassicaceae contain nortropane alkaloids. Phytochemistry 67:2050–2057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Brossi A, Pei XF (1998) Biological activity of unnatural alkaloid enantiomers. In: Cordell GA (ed) The alkaloids – chemistry and biology, vol 50. Academic Press, San Diego CA, USA, pp 109–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Bullion K, Ohnishi S, Osawa Y (1991) Competitive inhibition of human placental aromatase by N-n-octanoylnornicotine and other nornicotine derivatives. Endocrine Res 17:409–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Burton HR, Bush LP, Hamilton JL (1983) Effect of curing in the chemical composition of burley tobacco. Recent Adv Tob Sci 9:61–153Google Scholar
  78. Burton HR, Andersen RA, Fleming PD, Walton LR (1988) Changes in chemical composition of burley tobacco during senescence and curing. 2. Acylated pyridine alkaloids. J Agric Food Chem 36:579–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Bush LP, Fannin FF, Chelvarajan RL, Burton HR (1993) Biosynthesis and metabolism of nicotine and related alkaloids. In: Gorrod JW, Wahren J (eds) Nicotine and related alkaloids – absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 1–30Google Scholar
  80. Bush LP, Hempfling WP, Burton HR (1999). Biosynthesis of nicotine and related compounds. In: Gorrod JW, Jacob P III (eds) Analytical determination of nicotine and related compounds and their metabolites. Elsevier, Amsterdam, NL, pp 13–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Cairo Valera G, De Budowski J, Delle Monache F, Marini-Bettolo GB (1977) A new psychoactive drug: Heisteria olivae (Olacaceae). Att Acad Naz Lincei, Classe Sci Fis Matem Nat Rendiconti 62:363–364Google Scholar
  82. Cannon JR, Joshi KR, Meehan GV, Williams JR (1969) Tropane alkaloids from three western Australian Anthocercis species. Austral J Chem 22:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Carine MA, Russell SJ, Santos-Guerra A, Francisco-Ortega J (2004) Relationships of the Macaronesian and Mediterranean floras: molecular evidence for multiple colonizations into Macaronesia and back-colonization of the continent in Convolvulus (Convolvulaceae). Am J Bot 91:1070–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Carroll I, Lewin AH, Boja JW, Kuhar MJ (1992) Cocaine receptor: biochemical characterization and structure-activity relationships of cocaine analogues at the dopamine transporter. J Med Chem. 35:969–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Casanova H, Araque P, Ortiz C (2005) Nicotine carboxylate insecticide emulsions: effect of the fatty acid chain length. J Agric Food Chem 53:9949–9953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Chan GW, Berry D, DeBrosse CW, Hemling ME, MacKenzie-LoCasto L, Offen PH, Westley JW (1993) Conioidines A and B, novel DNA-interacting pyrrolidines from Chamaesaracha conioides. J Nat Prod. 56:708–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Chandler JLR, Gholson RK (1972) Nicotinic acid decarboxylation in tobacco roots. Phytochemistry 11:239–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Chari VM, Jordan M, Wagner H (1978) Structure elucidation and synthesis of naturally occurring acylglycosides – II. Structures of tiliroside, tribuloside, and ipomine. Planta Med 34:93–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Chase MW, Knapp S, Cox AV, Clarkson JJ, Butsko Y, Joseph J, Savolainen V, Parokonny AS (2003) Molecular systematics, GISH and the origin of hybrid taxa in Nicotiana (Solanaceae). Ann Bot 92:107–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Christen P, Kapetanidis I (1987) Phytochemical study on the leaves of Lycium halimifolium MILLER. Part 1. Studies on alkaloids. Pharmac Acta Helv 62:154–157Google Scholar
  91. Christen P, Roberts MF, Phillipson JD, Evans WC (1990) Alkaloids of hairy root cultures of a Datura candida hybrid. Plant Cell Rep 9:101–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Christen P, Roberts MF, Phillipson JD, Evans WC (1993) Alkaloids of Erythroxylum zambesiacum stem-bark. Phytochemistry 34:1147–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Christen P, Roberts MF, Phillipson JD, Evans WC (1995) Alkaloids of Erythroxylum monogynum root-bark. Phytochemistry 38:1053–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Clarkson JJ, Knapp S, Garcia VF, Olmstead RG, Leitch AR, Chase MW (2004). Phylogenetic relationships in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) inferred from multiple plastid DNA regions. Mol Phylogen Evol 33:75–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Clement BA, Goff CM, Forbes TDA (1997) Toxic amines and alkaloids from Acacia berlandieri. Phytochemistry 46:249–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Consuelo-Fonseca L, Salive GA (1972) Phytochemical study of Evolvulus sericeus var. holosericereus. Rev Colomb Cie Quim-Farm 2:27–50Google Scholar
  97. Coulson JF, Griffin WJ (1967) The alkaloids of Duboisia myoporoides. 1. Aerial parts. Planta Med 15:459–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Coulson JF, Griffin WJ (1968) The alkaloids of Duboisia myoporoides. 2. Roots. Planta Med 16:174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Crooks PA (1999) Chemical properties of nicotine and other tobacco-related compounds. In: Gorrod JW, Jacob P III (eds) Analytical determination of nicotine and related compounds and their metabolites. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 69–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Cutler HG, Severson RF, Cole PD, Arrendale RF, Sisson VA (1986) Plant growth inhibitory and antimicrobial properties of hydroxyacylnornicotines from select Nicotiana species. Proceedings – 13th Meeting Plant Growth Regulation Society of America, pp 188–200Google Scholar
  101. Czapek F (1925) Biochemie der Pflanzen, vol 3. Gustav Fischer, Jena/GermanyGoogle Scholar
  102. Czygan FC, Wessinger B, Warmuth K (1988) Cuscuta and its ability to take up and accumulate alkaloids of the host plant. Biochem Physiol Pflanz 183:495–501Google Scholar
  103. Dale HH (1914) The action of certain esters and ethers of choline and their relation to muscarine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 6:147–190Google Scholar
  104. Dasgupta P, Kinkade R, Joshi B, DeCook C, Haura E, Chellappan S (2006) Nicotine inhibits apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs by up-regulating XIAP and surviving. PNAS 103:6332–6337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Davis EL, Rich JR (1987) Nicotine content of tobacco roots and toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita. J Nematol 19:23–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Dawidar AM, Winternitz F, Johns SR (1977) Structure of ipomine, a new alkaloid of Ipomoea muricata JACQ. Tetrahedron 33:1733–1734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Dawson RF (1941) The localization of the nicotine synthetic mechanism in the tobacco plant. Science 94:396–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Dawson RF (1945) On the biogenesis of nornicotine and anabasine. J Am Chem Soc 67:503–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Dawson RF, Solt ML (1959) Estimated contributions of root and shoot to the nicotine content of the tobacco plant. Plant Physiol 34:656–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Dawson RF, Christman DR, d’Adamo A, Solt ML, Wolf AP (1960) The biosynthesis of nicotine from isotopically labelled nicotinic acids. J Am Chem Soc 82:2628–2633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. De Balogh KKIM, Dimande AP, van der Lugt JJ, Molyneux RJ, Naudé TW, Welman WG (1998) Ipomoea carnea: the cause of a lysosomal storage disease in goats in Mozambique. In: Garland T, Barr AC (eds) Toxic plants and other natural toxicants. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 428–434Google Scholar
  112. De Garcia LA, Rodriguez PH, Martinez M (1985) Alkaloid contents in some Colombian Brugmansia species. Rev Mex Cienc Farmac 16:11–13Google Scholar
  113. De la Fuente G, Reina M, Muñoz O, San Martin A, Girault JP (1988) Tropane alkaloids from Schizanthus pinnatus. Heterocycles 27:1887–1897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Deckers W, Maier J (1953) Two new alkaloids from Duboisia leichhardtii. Chem Ber 86:1423–1428Google Scholar
  115. Denton TT, Zhang X, Cashman JR (2004) Nicotine-related alkaloids and metabolites as inhibitors of human cytochrome P-450 2A6. Biochem Pharmacol 67:751–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Dinkel M, Bedner M (2001) Der Biorausch – ein neuer Trend. Notarzt 17:105–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Djordjevic MV, Bush LP, Gay SL, Burton HR (1990) Accumulation and distribution of acylated nornicotine derivatives in flue-cured tobacco alkaloid isolines. J Agric Food Chem 38:347–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Doerk-Schmitz K, Witte L, Alfermann AW (1994) Tropane alkaloid patterns in plants and hairy roots of Hyoscyamus albus. Phytochemistry 35:107–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Domino EF (1999) Pharmacological significance of nicotine. In: Gorrod JW, Jacob P III (eds) Analytical determination of nicotine and related compounds and their metabolites. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Doncheva T, Philipov S, Kostova N (2004) Alkaloids from Datura stramonium L. Dokl Bulgarsk Akad Nauk (Compt Rend Acad Bulg) 57:41–44Google Scholar
  121. Dorling PR, Colegate SM, Allen JG, Nickels R, Mitchell AA, Main DC, Madin B (2004) Calystegines isolated from Ipomoea spp. possibly associated with an ataxia syndrome in cattle in north Western Australia. In: Acamovic T, Stewart CS, Pennycott TW (eds) Poisonous plants and related toxins. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp 140–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Dräger B (1996) Glykosidasehemmstoffe – Biologische Aktivität und therapeutische Bedeutung. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 136:1199–1206Google Scholar
  123. Dräger B (2004) Chemistry and biology of calystegines. Nat Prod Rep 21:211–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Dräger B (2006) Tropinone reductases, enzymes at the branch point of tropane alkaloid metabolism. Phytochemistry 67:327–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Dräger B, Portsteffen A, Schaal A, McCabe PH, Peerless ACJ, Robins RJ (1992) Levels of tropinone-reductase activities influence the spectrum of tropane esters found in transformed root cultures of Datura stramonium L. Planta 188:581–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Dräger B, Funck C, Höhler A, Mrachatz G, Nahrstedt A, Portsteffen A, Schaal A, Schmidt R (1994) Calystegines as a new group of tropane alkaloids in Solanaceae. Plant Cell, Tissue Organ Cult 38:235–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Dräger B, van Almsick A, Mrachatz G (1995) Distribution of calystegines in several Solanaceae. Planta Med 61:577–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ducrot PH, Lallemand JY (1990) Structure of the calystegines: new alkaloids of the nortropane family. Tetrahedron Lett 31:3879–3882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Eckenwalder JE (1986) Nomenclature of the Cardinal Climber (Convolvulaceae) reconsidered. Taxon 35:169–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Ehrenfeld K (1999) Alkaloide in pflanzlichen Parasiten. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 139:4277–4278Google Scholar
  131. Ehrenstein M (1931) Tabakalkaloide. Arch Pharm 269:627–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. El-Dabbas SW, Evans WC (1982) Alkaloids of the genus Datura, section Brugmansia. X. Alkaloid content of Datura hybrids. Planta Med 44:184–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. El-Imam YMA, Evans WC (1984) Tropane alkaloids of species of Anthocercis, Cyphanthera and Crenidium. Planta Med 50:86–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. El-Imam YMA, Evans WC (1990) Alkaloids of a Datura candida cultivar, D. aurea and various hybrids. Fitoterapia 61:148–152Google Scholar
  135. El-Imam YMA, Evans WC, Plowman T (1985) Alkaloids of some South American Erythroxylum species. Phytochemistry 24:2285–2289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. El-Imam YMA, Evans WC, Grout RJ, Ramsey KPA (1987) Alkaloids of Erythroxylum zambesiacum root-bark. Phytochemistry 26:2385–2389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. El-Imam YMA, Evans WC, Grout RJ (1988) Alkaloids of Erythroxylum cuneatum, E. ecarnitum and E. australe. Phytochemistry 27:2181–2184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. El-Olemy MM, Schwarting AE (1965) Simulated biosynthesis of anahygrine. Experientia 21:249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. El-Shazly A, Tei A, Witte L, El-Domiaty M, Wink M (1997) Tropane alkaloids of Hyoscyamus boveanus, H. desertorum, H. muticus, and H. albus from Egypt. Z Naturforsch 52c:729–739Google Scholar
  140. Endo T, Yamada Y (1985) Alkaloid production in cultured roots of three species of Duboisia. Phytochemistry 24:1233–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Engel R, Nahrstedt A, Hammerschmidt F (1995) Composition of the essential oils of Cedronella canariensis (L.) WEBB. et BERTH. ssp. canariensis and ssp. anisata f. glabra and f. pubescens. J Essent Oil Res 7:473–487Google Scholar
  142. Enzell CR, Wahlberg I, Aasen AJ (1977) Isoprenoids and alkaloids of tobacco. In: Herz W, Grisebach H, Kirby GW (eds) Progress in the chemistry of organic natural products. Springer, Wien, pp 44–79Google Scholar
  143. Evans WC (1979) Tropane alkaloids of the Solanaceae. In: Hawkes, Lester, Skelding (eds) The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Linn Soc Symp Ser, vol 7. Linnean Soc & Academic Press, London, pp 241–254Google Scholar
  144. Evans WC, Lampard JF (1972) Alkaloids of Datura suaveolens. Phytochemistry 11:3293–3298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Evans WC, Major VA (1968) Alkaloids of the genus Datura, section Brugmansia. V. Alkaloids of D. sanguinea and related esters of tropane-3α,6β,7β,-triol. J Chem Soc C (Organic) 2775–2778Google Scholar
  146. Evans WC, Ramsey KPA (1979) Alkaloids of Anthocercis frondosa. J Pharm Pharmacol 31, Suppl:9PPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Evans WC, Ramsey KPA (1983) Alkaloids of the Solanaceae tribe Anthocercideae. Phytochemistry 22:2219–2225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Evans WC, Somanabandhu A (1974a) Alkaloids of Datura discolor. Phytochemistry 13: 304–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Evans WC, Somanabandhu A (1974b) Cuscohygrine, a constituent of the roots of some British Convolvulaceae. Phytochemistry 13:519–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Evans WC, Somanabandhu A (1977) Bases from roots of Solanum carolinense. Phytochemistry 16:1859–1860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Evans WC, Somanabandhu A (1980) Nitrogen-containing non-steroidal secondary metabolites of Solanum, Cyphomandra, Lycianthes and Margaranthus. Phytochemistry 19:2351–2356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Evans WC, Treagust PG (1973a) Distribution of alkaloids in Anthocercis littorea and A. viscosa. Phytochemistry 12:2505–2507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Evans WC, Treagust PG (1973b) Alkaloids of Datura pruinosa. Phytochem Rep 12:2077–2078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Evans WC, Wellendorf M (1958) l-3α,6β-Ditigloyloxytropane, a new alkaloid from Datura roots. J Chem Soc: 1991–1993Google Scholar
  155. Evans WC, Stevenson NA, Timoney RF (1969) Datura leichhardtii MUELL. ex BENTH. V. Alkaloidal constituents of the cross D. leichhardtii × D. inoxia. Planta Med 17:120–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Evans WC, Ghani A, Woolley VA (1972a) Alkaloids of Salpichroa origanifolia. Phytochemistry 11:469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Evans WC, Ghani A, Woolley VA (1972b) Alkaloids of Solandra species. Phytochemistry 11:470–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Evans WC, Ghani A, Woolley VA (1972c) Distribution of littorine and other alkaloids in the roots of Datura species. Phytochemistry 11:2527–2529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Evans WC, Ghani A, Woolley VA (1972d) Alkaloids of Cyphomandra betacea SENDT. J Chem Soc Perkin 1:2017–2019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Fang YW, Zhao JJ, Bian ZL (1981) Determination of the structure of Erycibe obtusifolia BENTH.’s base II – a new medicine for glaucoma. Hua Hsuch Tung Pao:209–210Google Scholar
  161. Fikenscher LH (1960) The occurrence of nicotine in the genus Acacia. Pharm Weekbl 95:233–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Fodor G, Csepreghy G (1959) Configuration of (−)-tropic acid and its naturally occurring esters. Tetrahedron Lett 7:16–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Ford YY, Fox GG, Ratcliffe G, Robins RJ (1994) In vivo 15N NMR studies of secondary metabolism in transformed root cultures of Datura stramonium and Nicotiana tabacum. Phytochemistry 36:333–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Freitas AVL, Trigo JR, Brown KS Jr, Witte L, Hartmann T, Barata LES (1996) Tropane and pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the ithomiines Placidula euryanassa and Miraleria cymothoe (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Chemoecology 7:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Friedman M, Roitman JN, Kozukue N (2003) Glycoalkaloid and calystegine contents of eight potato cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 51:2964–2973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Friesen JB, Leete E (1990) Nicotine synthase – an enzyme from Nicotiana species which catalyses the formation of (S)-nicotine from nicotinic acid and 1-methyl-Δ1-pyrrolinium chloride. Tetrahedron Lett 31:6295–6298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Friesen JB, Burkhouse PC, Biesboer DD, Leete E (1992) Influence of alkaloid precursors on the alkaloid content of Nicotiana alata root cultures. Phytochemistry 31:3059–3063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Frölich C, Hartmann T, Ober D (2006) Tissue distribution and biosynthesis of 1, 2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Phalaenopsis hybrides (Orchidaceae). Phytochemistry 67:1493–1502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Frölich C, Ober D, Hartmann T (2007) Tissue distribution, core biosynthesis and diversification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids of the lycopsamine type in three Boraginaceae species. Phytochemistry 68:1026–1037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Gadamer J (1901) Die Beziehungen des Hyoscyamins zu Atropin und des Scopolamins zu i-Scopolamin. Arch Pharm 239:294–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Gambaro VE, Roses OE (1989) The presence of nicotine in extracts and decoctions from flowers of Brugmansia candida PERS. Act Farmac Bonaerense 8:17–22Google Scholar
  172. Gambaro V, Labbé C, Castillo M (1983) Angeloyl, tigloyl and senecioyloxytropane alkaloids from Schizanthus hookerii. Phytochemistry 22:1838–1839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Garcia VF, Olmstead RG (2003) Phylogenetics of tribe Anthocercideae (Solanaceae) based on ndhF and trnL/F sequence data. Syst Bot 28:609–615Google Scholar
  174. Geiger PL (1833) Ueber einige neue giftige organische Alkalien. Liebigs Ann. Chem 7:269–280Google Scholar
  175. Geiger PL, Hesse (1833a) Darstellung des Atropins. Liebigs Ann Chem 5:43–81Google Scholar
  176. Geiger PL, Hesse (1833b) Fortgesetzte Versuche ueber Atropin. Liebigs Ann Chem 6:44–65Google Scholar
  177. Gemeinholzer B, Wink M (2001) Solanaceae: occurrence of secondary compounds versus molecular phylogeny. In: van den Berg RG, Barendse GWM, van der Weerden GM, Mariani C (eds) Solanaceae V – advances in taxonomy and utilization. Nijmegen University Press, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, pp 165–178Google Scholar
  178. Gerrard AW (1880) Tropane alkaloids of Duboisia myoporoides. Pharm J 11:383Google Scholar
  179. Ghani A (1985) Cuscohygrine from some solanaceous plants. Ind J Pharm Sci 47:127–129Google Scholar
  180. Ghani A, Evans WC, Woolley VA (1972) Alkaloids of Hyoscyamus species. Bangladesh Pharmac J 1:12–14Google Scholar
  181. Giesel (1891) Pharm Ztg:419; fide Czapek (1925)Google Scholar
  182. Gill S, Raszeja W, Szynkiewicz G (1979) Occurrence of nicotine in some species of the genus Sedum. Farmacja Polska 35:151–153Google Scholar
  183. Goldmann A, Milat ML, Ducrot PH, Lallemand JY, Maille M, Lepingle A, Charpin I, Tepfer D (1990) Tropane derivatives from Calystegia sepium. Phytochemistry 29:2125–2127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Gonzalez MD, Pomilio AB, Gros EG (1981) Terpenoids and alkaloids from Nierembergia hippomanica. Anales de la Asociacion Quimica Argentina 69:297–299Google Scholar
  185. Goodspeed TH (1954) The genus Nicotiana. Chron Bot 18:1–536Google Scholar
  186. Göpel C, Marcus A (2000) Renaissance der “Hexenkräuter”: Der Missbrauch alkaloidhaltiger Pflanzen. Krankenhauspsychiatrie 11:94–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Gorinova NI, Velcheva MP, Dyulgerov AS, Atanassov AI (1994) Tropane alkaloids in cell cultures of Physochlaina orientalis. Fitoterapia 65:452–456Google Scholar
  188. Gorrod JW (1993) The mammalian metabolism of nicotine: an overwiew. In: Gorrod JW, Wahren J (eds) Nicotine and related alkaloids – absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 31–44Google Scholar
  189. Gorrod JW, Schepers G (1999) Biotransformation of nicotine in mammalian systems. In: Gorrod JW, Jacob P III (eds) Analytical determination of nicotine and related compounds and their metabolites. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 45–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Gourley JM, Heacock RA, McInnes AG, Nikolin B, Smith DG (1969) The structure of ipalbine, a new hexahydroindolizidine alkaloid, isolated from Ipomoea alba L. J Chem Soc Chem Comm 709–710Google Scholar
  191. Greger H (1984) Alkamides: structural relationships, distribution and biological activity. Planta Med 50:366–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Greger H, Zdero C, Bohlmann F (1987) Pyrrole amides from Achillea ageratifolia. Phytochemistry 26:2289–2291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Griffin WJ (1965) The alkaloids of Duboisia leichhardtii. Australasian J Pharm 46:128–131Google Scholar
  194. Griffin WJ, Lin GD (2000) Chemotaxonomy and geographical distribution of tropane alkaloids. Phytochemistry 53:623–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Griffiths RC, Watson AA, Kizu H, Asano N, Sharp HJ, Jones MG, Wormald MR, Fleet GWJ, Nash RJ (1996) The isolation from Nicandra physalodes and identification of the 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside of 1α,2ß,3α,6α,-tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane (calystegine B1). Tetrahedron Lett 37:3207–3208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Gritsanapan W, Griffin WJ (1991) Alkaloid variation within Duboisia myoporoides. Phytochemistry 30:2667–2669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Guenther ES (1943) Characteristics and uses of oil of olibanum. Am Perfum Ess Oil Rev 45:41–43Google Scholar
  198. Guthrie FE, Ringler RL, Bowery TG (1957) Chromatographic separation and identification of some alkaloid metabolites of nicotine in certain insects. J Econ Entomol 50:821–825Google Scholar
  199. Haekkinen ST, Rischer H, Laakso I, Maaheimo H, Seppaenen-Laakso T (2004) Anatalline and other methyl jasmonate-inducible nicotine alkaloids from Nicotiana tabacum cv. By-2 cell cultures. Planta Med 70:936–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Halim AF, Collins RP, Berigari MS (1971) Alkaloids produced by Cestrum nocturnum and Cestrum diurnum. Planta Med 20:44–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Halitschke R, Gase K, Hui D, Schmidt DD, Baldwin IT (2003) Molecular interactions between the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and its natural host Nicotiana attenuata. VI. Microarray analysis reveals that most herbivore-specific transcriptional changes are mediated by fatty acid-amino acid conjugates. Plant Physiol 131:1894–1902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Hanounik SB, Osborne WW (1977) The relationships between density of Meloidogyne incognita and nicotine content of tobacco. Nematologica 23:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Hansberry R, Norton LB (1940) Toxicities of optically active nicotines and nornicotines to Aphis rumicis. J Econ Entomol 33:734–735Google Scholar
  204. Hänsel R (2004) Nicotianaalkaloide. In: Hänsel R, Sticher O (eds) Pharmakognosie – Phytopharmazie, 7. Aufl. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 936–941Google Scholar
  205. Hänsel R, Keller K, Rimpler H, Schneider G (eds) (1992) Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen A-Z, vol 4–6. Springer Verlag Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  206. Hao DY, Yeoman MM (1996a) Mechanism of nicotine N-demethylation in tobacco cell suspension cultures. Phytochemistry 41:477–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Hao DY, Yeoman MM (1996b) Nicotine N-demethylase in cell-free preparations from tobacco cell cultures. Phytochemistry Phytochemistry 42:325–329Google Scholar
  208. Haraguchi M, Gorniak SL, Ikeda K, Minami Y, Kato A, Watson AA, Nash RJ, Molyneux RJ, Asano N (2003) Alkaloidal components in the poisonous plant, Ipomoea carnea (Convolvulaceae). J Agric Food Chem 51:4995–5000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Harborne JB (1993) Introduction to ecological biochemistry, 4th edn. Academic Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  210. Harborne JB, Khan MB (1993) Variations in the alkaloidal and phenolic profiles in the genus Atropa (Solanaceae). Bot J Linn Soc 111:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Harris CM, Schneider MJ, Ungemach FS, Hill JE, Harris TM (1998) Biosynthesis of the toxic alkaloids slaframine and swainsonine in Rhizoctonia leguminicola: Metabolism of 1-hydroxy-indolizidines. J Am Chem Soc 110:940–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Harsh ML (1989) Tropane alkaloids from Lycium barbarum L., in vitro and in vivo. Curr Sci 58:817–818Google Scholar
  213. Hartmann R, San-Martin A, Muñoz O, Breitmaier E (1990) Grahamine, an unusual alkaloid from Schizanthus grahamii. Angew Chem 102:441–443 (Int Ed Engl 29:385–387)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Hartmann T (1999) Chemical ecology of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Planta 207:483–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Hartmann T (2004) Plant-derived secondary metabolites as defensive chemicals in herbivorous insects: a case study in chemical ecology. Planta 219:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Hartmann T, Ober D (2000) Biosynthesis and metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plants and specialized insect herbivores. Topics Curr Chem 209:207–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Hartmann T, Toppel G (1987) Senecionine N-oxide, the primary product of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis in root culture of Senecio vulgaris. Phytochemistry 26:1639–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Hartmann T, Witte L (1995) Chemistry, biology and chemoecology of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. In: Pelletier SW(ed) Alkaloids: chemical and biological perspectives, vol 9. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, pp 155–233Google Scholar
  219. Hartmann T, Witte L, Oprach F, Toppel G (1986) Reinvestigation of the alkaloid composition of Atropa belladonna plants, root cultures, and cell suspension. Planta Med 52:390–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Hartmann T, Ehmke A, Eilert U, v Borstel K, Theuring C (1989) Sites of synthesis, translocation and accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides in Senecio vulgaris. Planta 177:98–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Hashimoto T, Yamada Y (1994) Alkaloid biogenesis: molecular aspects. Ann Rev Plant Mol Biol 45:257–285Google Scholar
  222. Hashimoto T, Hayashi A, Amano Y, Kohno J, Iwanari H, Usuda S, Yamada Y (1991) Hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in tropane alkaloid biosynthesis, is localized at the pericycle of the root. J Biol Chem 266:4648–4653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Hashimoto T, Matsuda J, Yamada Y (1993) Two-step epoxidation of hyoscyamine to scopolamine is catalyzed by bifunctional hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase. FEBS Lett 329:35–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Hayslett RL, Tizabi Y (2003) Effects of donezipil on DOI-induced head twitch response in mice: implications for Tourette’s syndrome. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 76:409–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Hayslett RL, Tizabi Y (2005) Effects of donezipil, nicotine and haloperidol on the central serotonergic system in mice: implications for Tourette’s syndrome. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 81:879–886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Hedges SH, Herbert RB (1979) An economical, biogenetically patterned synthesis of the alkaloid ipalbidine. J Chem Res Synopses 1Google Scholar
  227. Heeschen C, Jang JJ, Weis M, Pathak A, Kaji S, Hu RS, Tsao PS, Johnson FL, Cooke JP (2001) Nicotine stimulates angiogenesis and promotes tumor growth and atherosclerosis. Nature Med. 7:833–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Hegnauer R, Fikenscher LH (1959) Untersuchungen mit Erythroxylum coca LAM. Pharm Acta Helv 35:43–64Google Scholar
  229. Heltmann H (1979) Morphologische und phytochemische Untersuchungen an Sippen der Gattung Atropa. Herba Hungarica 18:101–110Google Scholar
  230. Henrici A (1996) Neuartige Sekundärstoffe unterschiedlichster Struktur aus tropischen Convolvulaceen. Dissertation, Fachbereich Pharmazie, Freie Universität Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  231. Hess K (1919) Über die Alkaloide des Granatapfelbaums. VII. Das natürliche Vorkommen von Isopelletierin. Ber 52B:1005–1013Google Scholar
  232. Hess K, Fink H (1920) Über die Alkaloide der Hygrin-Reihe. III. Die Aufklärung der Konstitution des Cuskhygrins. Umwandlung von Cuskhygrin in Hygrin. Ber 53B:781–809Google Scholar
  233. Hesse O (1901a) Über Hyoscin und Atroscin. J Prakt Chem 172/64:353–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Hesse O (1901b) Über die Alkaloide der Mandragorawurzel. J Prakt Chem 172/64:274–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Hibi N, Fujita T, Hatano M, Hashimoto T, Yamada Y (1992) Putrescine N-methyltransferase in cultured roots of Hyoscyamus albus. Plant Physiol 100:826–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Hicks CS (1936) Observations on the chemistry of d-nornicotine, an alkaloid of Duboisia hopwoodii. Austral J Exptl Biol Med Sci 14:39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Hicks CS, LeMessurier H (1935) Preliminary observations on the chemistry and pharmacology of the alkaloids of Duboisia hopwoodii. Austral J Exptl Biol Med Sci 13:175–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Hicks CS, Brucke FT, Heuber EF (1935) Pharmacology of Duboisia hopwoodii (d-nornicotine). Arch Internat Pharmacodynam Ther 51:335–353Google Scholar
  239. Holdsworth DK, Jones RA, Self R (1998) Volatile alkaloids from Areca catechu. Phytochemistry 48:581–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Howes CD (1974) Nicotine inhibition of carotenoid cyclization in Cucurbita ficifolia cotyledons. Phytochemistry 13:1469–1471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Hsiao PK, Hsia KC, Ho LY (1973) Occurrence of important tropane alkaloids in Chinese solanaceous plants. Zhiwu Xuebao 15:187–194Google Scholar
  242. Huang MN, Abraham TW, Kim SH, Leete E (1996) 1-Methylpyrrolidine-2-acetic acid is not a precursor of tropane alkaloids. Phytochemistry 41:767–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Hueller H, Peters R, Scheler W, Schmidt D, Stremmel D (1971) Pharmacodynamics of withasomnine and two of its derivatives. Pharmazie 26:361–364Google Scholar
  244. Huesing J, Jones D (1987) A new form of antibiosis in Nicotiana. Phytochemistry 26:1381–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Huesing J, Jones D, Deverna J, Myers J, Collins G, Severson R, Sisson V (1989) Biochemical investigations of antibiosis material in leaf exudate of wild Nicotiana species and interspecific hybrids. J Chem Ecol 15:1203–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Humam M, Bieri S, Geiser L, Muñoz O, Veuthey JL, Christen P (2005) Separation of four isomeric tropane alkaloids from Schizanthus grahamii by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis. Phytochem Anal 16:349–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Humphrey AJ, O’Hagan D (2001) Tropane alkaloid biosynthesis. A century old problem unresolved. Nat Prod Rep 18:494–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Hunziker AT (2001) Genera Solanacearum – the Genera of Solanaceae illustrated, arranged according to a new system. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag, Ruggell, LichtensteinGoogle Scholar
  249. Husemann A, Hilger A, Husemann T (1884) Die Pflanzenstoffe in chemischer, physiologischer, pharmakologischer und toxikologischer Hinsicht, vol 2. Julius Springer, Berlin, pp. 1159–1180Google Scholar
  250. Ikeda K, Kato A, Adachi I, Haraguchi M, Asano N (2003) Alkaloids from the poisonous plant Ipomoea carnea: effects on intracellular lysosomal glycosidase activities in human lymphoblast cultures. J Agric Food Chem 51:7642–7646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Ikhiri K, Koulodo DDD, Garba M, Mamane S, Ahond A, Poupat C, Potier P (1987) Nouveaux alcaloïdes indoliziniques isolés de Ipomoea alba. J Nat Prod 50:152–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Ionkova I (2002) In vitro culture and the production of secondary metabolites in Hyoscyamus reticulatus L. In: Nagata T, Ebizuka Y (eds) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 51. Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp 75–94Google Scholar
  253. Ionkova I, Witte L, Alfermann AW (1994) Spectrum of tropane alkaloids in transformed roots of Datura inoxia and Hyoscyamus × györffyi cultivated in vitro. Planta Med 60:382–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Ishimura K, Shimomura K (1989) 7ß-Hydroxyhyoscyamine from Duboisia myoporoides-D. leichhardtii hybrid and Hyoscyamus albus. Phytochemistry 28:3507–3509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Israilov I, Abduazimov KA, Yunusov SY (1965) Alkaloids of Ungernica and Convolvulus lineatus. Doklady Akad Nauk UzSSR 22:18–19Google Scholar
  256. Jackson BP, Berry MI (1973) Hydroxytropane tiglates in the roots of Mandragora species. Phytochemistry 12:1165–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Jackson DM, Johnson AW, Stephenson MG (2002) Survival and development of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on isogenic tobacco lines with different levels of alkaloids. J Econ Entomol 95:1294–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Jackson KE (1941) Alkaloids of tobacco. Chem Rev 29:123–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Jacob P III, Hatsukami D, Severson H, Hall S, Yu L, Benowitz NL (2002) Anabasine and anatabine as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy. Cancer Epidem Biomark Prevent 11:1668–1673Google Scholar
  260. Jain RK (2001) Clearing the smoke on nicotine and angiogenesis. Nature Med 7:775–777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Jenett-Siems K (1996) Phytochemische Untersuchungen an Windengewächsen der Gattungen Calystegia, Convolvulus, Ipomoea und Merremia unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Alkaloidvorkommens. Dissertation Fachbereich Pharmazie, Freie Universität Berlin/GermanyGoogle Scholar
  262. Jenett-Siems K, Kaloga M, Eich E (1993) Ipangulines, the first pyrrolizidine alkaloids from the Convolvulaceae. Phytochemistry 34:437–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Jenett-Siems K, Henrici A, Tofern B, Bufacchi-Richter A, Kaloga M, Witte L, Hartmann T, Eich E (1996) Occurrence and distribution of hygrines and tropanes in the convolvulaceous genus Merremia including the report on merredissine, an new tropane alkaloid. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Congress of the Society of Medicinal Plant Research, Prague, p 128Google Scholar
  264. Jenett-Siems K, Schimming T, Kaloga M, Eich E, Siems K, Gupta MP, Witte L, Hartmann T (1998a) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Ipomoea hederifolia and related species. Phytochemistry 47:1551–1560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Jenett-Siems K, Mann P, Kaloga M, Siems K, Jakupovic J, Eich E (1998b) Tropane alkaloids with a unique type of acyl moiety from two Convolvulus species. Phytochemistry 49:1449–1451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Jenett-Siems K, Ott SC, Schimming T, Siems K, Müller F, Hilker M, Witte L, Hartmann T, Austin DF, Eich E (2005a) Ipangulines and minalobines, chemotaxonomic markers of the infrageneric Ipomoea taxon subgenus Quamoclit, section Mina. Phytochemistry 66:223–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Jenett-Siems K, Weigl R, Böhm A, Mann P, Tofern-Reblin B, Ott SC, Ghomian A, Kaloga M, Siems K, Witte L, Hilker M, Müller F, Eich E (2005b) Chemotaxonomy of the pantropical genus Merremia (Convolvulaceae) based on the distribution of tropane alkaloids. Phytochemistry 66:1448–1464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Jordan M, Humam M, Bieri S, Christen P, Poblete E, Muñoz O (2006) In vitro shoot and root organogenesis, plant regenaration and production of tropane alkaloids in some species of Schizanthus. Phytochemistry 67:570–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Jovankovics K (1966) Himalayan scopola (Anisodus luridus) roots cultivated in Hungarian Research Institute of Medical Plants. Herba Hungarica 5:41–44Google Scholar
  270. Jowett HAD, Pyman FL (1909) Relation between chemical constitution and physiological action in the tropeines. Part II. J Chem Soc 95:1020–1032Google Scholar
  271. Kagei K, Ikeda M, Sato T, Ogata Y, Toyoshima S, Matsuura S (1980) Studies on Duboisia species. V. Alkaloids in cultured cells of Duboisia leichhardtii. Yakugaku Zasshi 100:574–575Google Scholar
  272. Karrer P, Widmer R (1925) Konfiguration des Nikotins. Optisch aktive Hygrinsäure. Helv Chim Acta 8:364–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Kato A, Asano N, Kizu H, Matsui K, Suzuki S, Arisawa M (1997) Calystegine alkaloids from Duboisia leichhardtii. Phytochemistry 45:425–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Keiner R, Nakajami K, Hashimoto T, Dräger B (2000) Accumulation and biosynthesis of calystegines in potato. J Appl Bot/Angew Bot 74:122–125Google Scholar
  275. Keiner R, Kaiser H, Nakajami K, Hashimoto T, Dräger B (2002) Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of tropinone reductase II, an enzyme of the SDR family in Solanum tuberosum L. Plant Mol Biol 48:299–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Kennedy GS (1971) (−)-Hyoscyamine in Duboisia hopwoodii. Phytochemistry 10:1335–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Kenton A, Parakonny AS, Gleba YY, Bennett MD (1993) Characterization of the Nicotiana tabacum L. genome by molecular cytogenetics. Mol Gen Genet 240:159–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Keogh MF, O’Donovan DG (1970) Biosynthesis of some alkaloids of Punica granatum and Withania somnifera. J Chem Soc C (Organic) 1792–1797Google Scholar
  279. Kester KM, Peterson SC, Hanson F, Jackson DM, Severson RF (2002) The roles of nicotine and natural enemies in determining larval feeding site distributions of Manduca sexta L. and Manduca quinquemaculata HAWORTH on tobacco. Chemoecology 12:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Khan MB, Harborne JB (1991) A comparison of the effect of mechanical and insect damage on alkaloid levels in Atropa acuminata. Biochem Syst Ecol 19:529–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Kim JH, T’Hart H, Stevens JF (1996) Alkaloids of some Asian Sedum species. Phytochemistry 41:1319–1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. King H, Ware LL (1941) Alkaloids of Bulgarian belladonna root. J Chem Soc 331–337Google Scholar
  283. Kisaki T, Tamaki E (1966) Phytochemical studies of the tobacco alkaloids. X. Degradation of the tobacco alkaloids and their optical rotatory changes in tobacco plants. Phytochemistry 5:293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Kisaki T, Mizusaki S, Tamaki E (1968) Phytochemical studies on tobacco alkaloids. XI. A new alkaloid in Nicotiana tabacum roots. Phytochemistry 7:323–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Kitamura Y, Hasegawa S, Miura H, Sugii M (1980) On the pyridine alkaloids of Duboisia myoporoides R.BR. cultivated in Nagasaki Prefecture. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 34:117–121Google Scholar
  286. Kitamura Y, Miura H, Sugii M (1985) Variations of alkaloids in the developing seedlings of Duboisia myoporoides R.BR. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 39:85–87Google Scholar
  287. Kitamura Y, Tominaga Y, Ikenaga T (2004) Winter cherry bugs feed on plant tropane alkaloids and de-epoxidize scopolamine to atropine. J Chem Ecol 30:2085–2090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Klaassen CD (1995) Nonmetallic environmental toxicants. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, Ruddon RW, Goodman Gilman A (eds) Goodman & Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 9th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1673–1696Google Scholar
  289. Knapp S, Chase MW, Clarkson JJ (2004) Nomenclatural changes and a new sectional classification in Nicotiana. Taxon 53:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Kraut K (1863) Ueber das Atropin. Liebigs Ann Chem 128:280–285Google Scholar
  291. Kraut K (1865) Ueber das Atropin. 2.Mitt. Liebigs Ann Chem 133:87–99Google Scholar
  292. Kraut K (1868) Ueber das Atropin. 3.Mitt. Liebigs Ann Chem 148:236–241Google Scholar
  293. Krug E, Proksch P (1993) Influence of dietary alkaloids on survival and growth of Spodoptera littoralis. Biochem Syst Ecol 21:749–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Kubwabo C, Rollmann B, Tilquin B (1993) Analysis of alkaloids from Physalis peruviana by capillary GC, capillary GC-MS, and GC-FTIR. Planta Med 59:161–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Kuffner F, Faderl N (1956) Die Konstitution des Nicotellins. Monatsh Chem 87:71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Kusano G, Orihara S, Tsukamoto D, Shibano M, Coskun M, Guvenc A, Erdurak CS (2002) Five new nortropane alkaloids and six new amino acids from the fruit of Morus alba LINNÉ growing in Turkey. Chem Pharm Bull 50:185–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Ladenburg A (1879) Künstliches Atropin. Ber 12:941–944Google Scholar
  298. Ladenburg A (1880) Ueber das Duboisin. Ber 13:257–258Google Scholar
  299. Ladenburg A (1881a) Die natürlich vorkommenden mydriatisch wirkenden Alkaloide. Liebigs Ann Chem 206:274–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Ladenburg A (1881b) Über das Hyoscin. Ber 14:1870–1872Google Scholar
  301. Ladenburg A, Hundt C (1889) Ueber die Darstellung optisch activer Tropasäure und optisch activer Atropine. Ber 22:2590–2592Google Scholar
  302. Laiblin R (1877) Zur Kenntnis des Nicotins. Ber 10:2136–2140Google Scholar
  303. Laiblin R (1879) Ueber Nicotin und Nicotinsäure. Liebigs Ann Chem 196:129–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Langone JJ, Gjika HB, van Vunakis H (1999) Use of immunoassay techniques fort he determination of nicotine and its metabolites. In: Gorrod JW, Jacob P III (eds) Analytical determination of nicotine and related compounds and their metabolites. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 265–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Laue G, Preston CA, Baldwin IT (2000) Fast track to the trichome: induction of N-acylnornicotines precedes nicotine induction in Nicotiana repanda. Planta 210:510–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Lazur’evskii GV (1939) Alkaloids from Convolvulus hamadae. Sbornik Rabot Khim 15:43–52Google Scholar
  307. Leary JD, Khanna KL, Schwarting AE, Bobbitt JM (1963) Occurrence of cuscohygrine and 3t-tigloyloxytropane in Withania somnifera. Lloydia (J Nat Prod) 25:44–48Google Scholar
  308. Leary JD, Bobbitt JM, Rother A, Schwarting AE (1964) Structure and synthesis of the alkaloid anahygrine. Chem & Ind (London, UK) 283–284Google Scholar
  309. Leete E (1967) Biosynthesis of the Nicotiana alkaloids. XI. Investigation of tautomerism in N-methyl-Δ1-pyrrolinium chloride and its incorporation into nicotine. J Am Chem Soc 89:7081–7084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Leete E (1969) Biosynthesis of the Nicotiana alkaloids. XIV. The incorporation of Δ1-piperideine-6-14C into the piperidine ring of anabasine. J Am Chem Soc 91:1697–1700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Leete E (1977) The incorporation of [5, 6-13C2]-nicotinic acid into the tobacco alkaloids examined by the use of carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance. Biorg Chem 6:273–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Leete E (1979) The metabolism of anatabine to α,ß-dipyridyl in Nicotiana species. Phytochemistry 18:75–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Leete E (1983) Biosynthesis and metabolism of the tobacco alkaloids. In: Pelletier SW (ed) Alkaloids – chemical and biological perspectives, vol 1. Wiley, New York, pp 85–152Google Scholar
  314. Leete E (1985) Biosynthesis of hygrine from [5-14C]ornithine via a symmetrical intermediate in Nicandra physaloides. Phytochemistry 24:953–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Leete E (1990) Recent developments in the biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloids. Planta Med 56:339–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Leete E, Chedekel MR (1972) The aberrant formation of (−)-N-methylanabasine from N-methyl-Δ1-piperideinium chloride in Nicotiana tabacum and N. glauca. Phytochemistry 11:2751–2756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Leete E, Chedekel MR (1974) Metabolism of nicotine in Nicotiana glauca. Phytochemistry 13:1853–1859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Leete E, Kim SH (1988) A revision of the generally accepted hypothesis for the biosynthesis of the tropane moiety of cocaine. J Am Chem Soc 110:2976–2978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Leete E, Mueller ME (1982) Biomimetic synthesis of anatabine from 2, 5-dihydropyridine produced by the oxidative decarboxylation of baikiain. J Am Chem Soc 104:6440–6444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Leete E, Kim SH, Rana J (1988) The incorporation of [2-13C, 14C, 15N]-1-methyl −Δ1-pyrrolinium chloride into cuscohygrine in Erythroxylum coca. Phytochemistry 27:401–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Leete E, Endo T, Yamada Y (1990) Biosynthesis of nicotine and scopolamine in a root culture of Duboisia leichhardtii. Phytochemistry 29:1847–1851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Leffingwell JC (1999) Leaf chemistry: basic chemical constituents of tobacco leaf and differences among tobacco types. In: Davis DL, Nielsen MT (eds) Tobacco – production, chemistry and technology. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, pp 265–284Google Scholar
  323. Leistner E, Spenser D (1973) Biosynthesis of the piperidine nucleus. Incorporation of chirally labelled [1-3H]cadaverine. J Am Chem Soc 95:4715–4725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Leunis J, Frank AB (1885) Synopsis der Pflanzenkunde, vol 2. Hahn’sche Buchhandlung, Hannover, pp 590–594Google Scholar
  325. Lewin L (1923) Die Pfeilgifte: nach eigenen und ethnologischen Untersuchungen. Verlag JA Barth, Leipzig – Reprographischer Nachdruck Gerstenberg Verlag, Hildesheim/Germany, 2. Auflage (1984)Google Scholar
  326. Lewis SJ, Cherry NM, Niven RM, Barber PV, Wilde K, Povey AC (2003) Cotinine levels and self-reported smoking status in patients attending a bronchoscopy clinic. Biomarkers 8:218–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Liebermann C (1889) Über Hygrin. Ber 22:675–679Google Scholar
  328. Liebermann C, Cybulski G (1895) Über Hygrin und Hygrinsäure. Ber 28:578–585Google Scholar
  329. Liebisch HW, Schütte HR (1985) Alkaloids derived from ornithine. In: Mothes K, Schütte HR, Luckner M (eds) Biochemistry of alkaloids. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/Germany, pp 106–127Google Scholar
  330. Linné C von (1788) Allgemeines Register über die in den sämtlichen dreyzehn Theilen des Linneischen Pflanzensystems beschriebenen Gattungen und Arten nebst einem besondern die denselben eigenen Synonymen erläuternden. Vierzehnter Theil. Raspische Buchhandlung, Nürnberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  331. Lippiello PM, Caldwell WS, Marks MJ, Collins AC (1994) Development of nicotinic agonists for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer Dis 186–190Google Scholar
  332. Liu T, Zhu P, Cheng KD, Meng C, He HX (2005) Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase from hairy roots of Anisodus tanguticus. Planta Med 71:249–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Lockwood TE (1973) Generic recognition of Brugmansia. Bot Mus Leafl (Harvard Univ.) 23:273–283Google Scholar
  334. Loftus Hills K, Trautner EM, Rodwell CN (1946) A tobacco-Duboisia graft. Austral J Sci 9:24–25Google Scholar
  335. Loftus Hills K, Bottomley W, Mortimer PI (1953) Occurrence of nicotine together with hyoscine in Duboisia myoporoides. Nature (London) 171:435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Loftus Hills K, Bottomley W, Mortimer PI (1954a) Variation in the main alkaloids of Duboisia myoporoides and Duboisia leichhardtii. II. Duboisia myoporoides. Austral J Appl Sci 5:258–275Google Scholar
  337. Loftus Hills K, Bottomley W, Mortimer PI (1954b) Variation in the main alkaloids of Duboisia myoporoides and Duboisia leichhardtii. III. Duboisia leichhardtii. Austral J Appl Sci 5:276–282Google Scholar
  338. Long RC, Weybrew JA (1981) Major chemical changes during senescence and curing. Recent Adv Tob Sci 7:40–74Google Scholar
  339. Lossen W (1864) Ueber das Atropin (2.Mitt.) Liebigs Ann Chem 131:43–49Google Scholar
  340. Lossen W (1865) Ueber das Cocain. Liebig Ann Chem 133: 351–371Google Scholar
  341. Lossen W (1866) Ueber das Atropin (3.Mitt.) Liebigs Ann Chem 138:230–241Google Scholar
  342. Lou Y, Baldwin IT (2003) Manduca sexta recognition and resistance among allopolyploid Nicotiana host plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:14581–14586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Lounasmaa M, Tamminen T (1993) The tropane alkaloids. In: Cordell GA (ed) The alkaloids – chemistry and pharmacology, vol 44. Academic Press, San Diego (CA)/USA, pp 1–114Google Scholar
  344. Lovkova MY, Minozhedinova NS, Il’in GS (1976) Alkaloid spectrum at early stages of development of Nicotiana glauca. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Biologicheskaya:455–458Google Scholar
  345. Lovkova MY, Kliment’eva NI, Sabirova NS, Moiseev RK, Buzuk GN (1994) Metabolism of alkaloids. Expansion of the nicotinic pyrrolidine heterocycle to piperidine anabasine. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Biologicheskaya:5–13Google Scholar
  346. Lu Y, Yao T, Chen Z (1986) Constituents of Erycibe elliptilimba. Yaoxue Xuebao 21:829–835Google Scholar
  347. Luanratana O, Griffin WJ (1982) Alkaloids of Duboisia hopwoodii. Phytochemistry 21:449–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Lukes R, Kovar J, Kloubek J, Blaha K (1960) Configuration of nitrogen-containing compounds. VII. Absolute configuration of hygrine and hygroline. Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications 25:483–491Google Scholar
  349. Mace ES, Gebhardt CG, Lester EN (1999) AFLP analysis of genetic relationships in the tribe Datureae (Solanaceae) Theor Appl Genet 99:634–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Maeda S, Matsushita H, Mikami Y, Kisaki T (1980) Structural changes of N-methylmyosmine based on pH. Agric Biol Chem 44:1643–1645Google Scholar
  351. Maienfisch P, Brandl F, Kobel W, Rindlisbacher A, Senn R (1999). CGA 293ʹ343: a novel, broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide. In: Yamamoto I, Casida JE (eds) Nicotinoid insecticides and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Springer, Tokyo, pp 177–209Google Scholar
  352. Majumdar DN (1952) Alkaloidal constituents of Withania somnifera. Curr Sci 21:46Google Scholar
  353. Majumdar DN (1955) Withania somnifera. II. Alkaloidal constituents and their chemical characterization. Ind J Pharm 17:158–61Google Scholar
  354. Mann DF, Byerrum RU (1974) Activation of the de novo pathway for pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis prior to ricinine biosynthesis in castor beans. Plant Physiol 53:603–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Mann P (1997) Zur Phytochemie und Chemotaxonomie tropischer und mediterraner Convolvulaceen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Alkaloidvorkommens. Dissertation, Fachbereich Pharmazie, Freie Universität Berlin/GermanyGoogle Scholar
  356. Mann P, Eich E, Witte L, Hartmann T (1996) GC-MS study on the alkaloid pattern of Merremia quinquefolia (L.) H.HALL. f.: First occurrence of retronecine esters, simple phenylethylamine derivatives, and pyrrolidides in the Convolvulaceae. Book of Abstracts, 44th Annual Congress of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research and a Joint Meeting with the Czech Biotechnology Society, Prague/Czech Republic, p 148 (P 251)Google Scholar
  357. Mann P, Kaloga M, Witte L, Hartmann T, Eich E (1997) Complex alkaloid type pattern of Merremia quinquefolia (L.) H.HALL.: first occurrence of pyrrolidides, retronecine type pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and simple phenylethylamine derivatives in the Convolvulaceae. Book of Abstracts, IOCD/CYTED International Joint Symposium “Chemistry, Biological and Pharmacological Properties of Medicinal Plants from the Americas”, Panama City, A-12Google Scholar
  358. Manos PS, Miller RE, Wilkin P (2001) Phylogenetic analysis of Ipomoea, Argyreia, Stictocardia, and Turbina suggests a generalized model of morphological evolution in morning glories. Syst Bot 26:585–602Google Scholar
  359. Manske RHF, Marion L (1942) The alkaloids of Lycopodium species. I. Lycopodium complanatum L. Can J Res 20B:87–92Google Scholar
  360. Marion L (1939) The occurrence of l-nicotine in Asclepias syriaca. Can J Res 17B:21–22Google Scholar
  361. Marion L (1945) The alkaloids of Sedum acre. Can J Res 23B:165–166Google Scholar
  362. Marion L, Manske RHF (1948) Alkaloids of Lycopodium species. X. Lycopodium cernuum. Can J Res 26B:1–2Google Scholar
  363. Martin RJ, Clark CL, Trailovic SM, Robertson AP (2004) Oxantel is an N-type (methyridine and nicotine) agonist not an L-type (levamisole and pyrantel) agonist: classification of cholinergic anthelmintics in Ascaris. Int J Parasit 34:1083–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Martinetz D (1994) Rauschdrogen und Stimulantien. Urania-Verlag Leipzig/GermanyGoogle Scholar
  365. Massiot G, Delaude C (1986) Pyrrolidine alkaloids. In: Brossi A (ed) The alkaloids – chemistry and pharmacology, vol 27. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 270–321Google Scholar
  366. Matsuda K, Kimura M, Komai K, Hamada M (1989) Nematicidal activities of (−)-N-methylcytisine and (−)-anagyrine from Sophora flavescens against pine wood nematodes. Agric Biol Chem 53:2287–2288Google Scholar
  367. Matsuo H, Tomizawa M, Yamamoto I (1998) Structure-activity relationships of acyclic nicotinoids and neonicotinoids for insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor/ion channel complex. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 37:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Matsushita H, Tsujino Y, Yoshida D, Saito A, Kisaki T, Kato K, Noguchi M (1979) New minor alkaloids in flue-cured tobacco leaf (Nicotiana tabacum cv. BY-260–9). Agric Biol Chem 43:193–194Google Scholar
  369. Matsuzaki T, Miyano M, Yasumatsu N, Matsushita H, Koiwai A (1988) Germination and growth inhibition of acylnornicotines from Section Repandae of the genus Nicotiana and synthetic acylnornicotines. Agric Biol Chem 52:1899–1903Google Scholar
  370. McGaw BA, Woolley JG (1978a) The biosynthesis of hygrine and tropane alkaloids. J Pharm Pharmacol 30:Suppl 83PGoogle Scholar
  371. McGaw BA, Woolley JG (1978b) Stereochemistry of tropane alkaloid formation in Datura. Phytochemistry 17:257–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. McGaw BA, Woolley JG (1979) Metabolism of hygrine in Atropa, Hyoscyamus and Physalis. Phytochemistry 18:189–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Mehra KL (1979) Ethnobotany of old world Solanaceae. In: The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Linnean Society Symposium Series No. 7. Academic Press, London, pp 161–170Google Scholar
  374. Meikle AW, Liu XH, Taylor GN, Stringham JD (1988) Nicotine and cotinine effects on 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in canine prostate. Life Sci 43:1845–1850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Mein (1833) Ueber die Darstellung des Atropins in weißen Krystallen. Liebigs Ann Chem 6:67–72Google Scholar
  376. Miller RE, Rausher MD, Manos PS (1999) Phylogenetic systematics of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) based on ITS and waxy sequences. Syst Bot 24:209–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Miller RE, McDonald JA, Manos PS (2004) Systematics of Ipomoea subgenus Quamoclit (Convolvulaceae) based on ITS sequence data and a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. Am J Bot 91:1208–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Minina SA, Astakhova TV, Gromova EG, Ovchinnikova AA (1976) Production and pahrmacological study of cuscohygrine dimethiodide. Khimiko-Farmatsevticheskii Zhurnal 10:69–73Google Scholar
  379. Mirzamatov RT, Malikov VM, Lutfullin KL, Yunusov SY (1972) Alkaloids of Physochlaina dubia. Khim Prir Soedin 8:493–495Google Scholar
  380. Miyano M, Matsushita H, Yasumatsu N, Nishida K (1979) New minor alkaloids in burley tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Agric Biol Chem 43:1607–1608Google Scholar
  381. Miyano M, Yasumatsu N, Matsushita H, Nishida K (1981) 1ʹ-(6-Hydroxyoctanoyl) nornicotine and 1ʹ-(7-hydroxyoctanoyl) nornicotine, two new alkaloids from Japanese domestic tobacco. Agric Biol Chem 45:1029–1032Google Scholar
  382. Mizusaki S, Tanabe Y, Noguchi M, Tamaki E (1971) Phytochemical studies on tobacco alkaloids. XIV. Occurrence and properties of putrescine N-methyltransferase in tobacco roots. Plant Cell Physiol 12:633–640Google Scholar
  383. Mizusaki S, Tanabe Y, Noguchi M, Tamaki E (1972) N-Methylputrescine oxidase from tobacco roots. Phytochemistry 11:2757–2762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Molyneux RJ, Pan YT, Goldmann A, Tepfer DA, Elbein AD (1993) Calystegines, a novel class of alkaloid glycosidase inhibitors. Arch Biochem Biophys 304:81–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. Molyneux RJ, McKenzie RA, O’Sullivan BM, Elbein AD (1995) Identification of the glycosidase inhibitors swainsonine and calystegine B2 in Weir vine (Ipomoea sp. Q6 [aff. calobra]) and correlation with toxicity. J Nat Prod 58:878–886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Molyneux RJ, Nash RJ, Asano N (1996) The chemistry and biological activity of calystegines and related nortropane alkaloids. In: Pelletier SW (ed) Alkaloids: chemical and biological perspectives, vol 11. Pergamon/Elsevier Science, London, pp 303–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Morris CE (1983) Uptake and metabolism of nicotine by the CNS of a nicotine-resistant insect, the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). J Insect Physiol 29:807–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Mortimer PI (1957) A note on Duboisia myoporoides from the Acacia Plateau, near Killarney, Queensland. Austral J Sci 20:87–88Google Scholar
  389. Mortimer PI, Wilkinson S (1957) The occurrence of nicotine, anabasine, and isopelletierine in Duboisia myoporoides. J Chem Soc (London):3967–3970Google Scholar
  390. Mothes K, Romeike A (1954) Nicotin als Ursache der Unverträglichkeit von Pfropfungen. Flora 142:109–131Google Scholar
  391. Muñóz MA, Muñóz O, Joseph-Nathan P (2006) Absolute configuration of natural diastereoisomers of 6β-hydroxyhyoscyamine by vibrational circular dichroism. J Nat Prod 69:1335–1340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Muñóz O, Casale JF (2003) Tropane alkaloids from Latua pubiflora. Z Naturforsch 58c:626–628Google Scholar
  393. Muñóz O, Cortés S (1998) Tropane alkaloids from Schizanthus porrigens. Pharm Biol 36: 162–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Muñóz O, Hartmann R, Breitmaier E (1991) Schizanthine X, a new alkaloid from Schizanthus grahamii. J Nat Prod 54:1094–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Muñóz O, Schneider C, Breitmaier E (1994) A new pyrrolidine alkaloid from Schizanthus integrifolius. Liebigs Ann Chem:521–522Google Scholar
  396. Muñóz O, Piovano M, Garbarino J, Hellwig V, Breitmaier E (1996) Tropane alkaloids from Schizanthus litoralis. Phytochemistry 43:709–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Musser RO, Cipollini DF, Hum-Mussser SM, Williams SA, Brown JK, Felton GW (2005) Evidence that the caterpillar salivary enzyme glucose oxidase provides herbivore offense in solanaceous plants. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 58:128–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. Nash RJ, Rothschild M, Porter EA, Watson AA, Waigh RD, Waterman PG (1993) Calystegines in Solanum and Datura species and the death’s-head hawk-moth (Acherontia atropus). Phytochemistry 34:1281–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. Nash RJ, Watson AA, Winters AL, Fleet GWJ, Wormald MR, Dealer S, Lees E, Asano N, Molyneux RJ (1998) Glycosidase inhibitors in British plants as causes of livestock disorders. In: Garland T, Barr AC (eds) Toxic plants and other natural toxicants. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 276–284Google Scholar
  400. Neuwinger HD (1996) African ethnobotany – poisons and drugs. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  401. Neuwinger HD (1998) Alkaloids in arrow poisons. In: Roberts MF, Wink M (eds) Alkaloids – biochemistry, ecology, and medicinal applications. Plenum Press, New York, pp 45–84Google Scholar
  402. Newquist ML, Abraham TW, Leete E (1993) Biosynthetic incorporation of ethyl (RS) [2, 3-13C2, 3-14C]-4-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-3-oxobutanoate into cuscohygrine in Erythroxylum coca. Phytochemistry 33:1437–1440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. Niemann A (1860) Ueber eine organische Base in der Coca. Liebigs Ann Chem 114:213–217Google Scholar
  404. Nishikawa K, Miyamura M, Hirata Y (1967) Chemotaxonomical alkaloid studies. II. Structures of kuramerine and kumokirine. Tetrahedron Lett 27:2597–2600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. Nytredy S, Groß GA, Sticher O (1986) Minor alkaloids from Nicotiana tabacum. J Nat Prod 49:1156–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. O’Brien CP (1995) Drug addiction and drug abuse. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, Ruddon RW, Goodman Gilman A (eds) Goodman & Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 9th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 557–577Google Scholar
  407. O’Donovan DG, Forde TJ (1970) Biosynthesis of withasominine, a unique pyrazole alkaloid. Tetrahedron Lett:3637–3638Google Scholar
  408. O’Donovan DG, Keogh MF (1968) Biosynthesis of piperidine alkaloids. Tetrahedron Lett 265–267Google Scholar
  409. O’Donovan DG, Keogh MF (1969) The role of hygrine in the biosynthesis of cuscohygrine and hyoscyamine. J Chem Soc C:223–226Google Scholar
  410. O’Hagan D, Robins RJ (1998) Tropic acid ester biosynthesis in Datura stramonium and related species. Chem Soc Rev 27:207–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. Ober D, Hartmann T (1999) Homospermidine synthase, the first pathway-specific enzyme of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, evolved from deoxyhypusine synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:14777–14782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. Ober D, Gibas L, Witte L, Hartmann T (2003) Evidence for general occurrence of homospermidine in plants and its supposed origin of deoxyhypusine synthase. Phytochemistry 62:339–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. Orechoff A (1929) The alkaloids of Anabasis aphylla. C R Acad Sci 189:945Google Scholar
  414. Orechoff A, Konowalowa R (1933) Über die Alkaloide von Convolvulus pseudocantabricus SCHRENK. (1.Mitt.) Arch Pharm 271:145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. Orechoff A, Konowalowa R (1934) Über die Alkaloide von Convolvulus pseudocantabricus (2. Mitt.) Ber 67:1153–1156Google Scholar
  416. Orechoff A, Konowalowa R (1935) Über die Alkaloide von Convolvulus pseudo-cantabricus, III. Mitteil.: Konstitution des Convolvins und Isolierung von zwei neuen Basen. Ber 68:814–819Google Scholar
  417. Orechoff A, Konowalowa R (1937) Über die Alkaloide von Convolvulus pseudocantabricus. Zh Obscej Khimii 7:646–653Google Scholar
  418. Orechoff A, Menschikoff G (1931) Über die Alkaloide von Anabasis aphylla L. I. Ber 64:266–274Google Scholar
  419. Orechoff A, Menschikoff G (1932) Über die Alkaloide von Anabasis aphylla II. Zur Konstitution des Anabasins. Ber 65B:232–234Google Scholar
  420. Osawa Y, Tochigi B, Tochigi M, Ohnishi S, Watanabe Y, Bullion K, Osawa G, Nakabayashi Y, Yarborough C (1990) Aromatase inhibitors in cigarette smoke, tobacco leaves and other plants. J Enzyme Inhibit 4:187–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. Ott SC, Jenett-Siems K, Pertz HH, Siems K, Witte L, Eich E (2006) Bonabiline A, a monoterpenoid 3α-acyloxytropane from the roots of Bonamia spectabilis showing M3 receptor antagonis activity. Planta Med 72:1403–1406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. Ott SC, Tofern-Reblin B, Jenett-Siems K, Siems K, Müller F, Hilker M, Onegi B, Witte L, Eich E (2007) Unusual tropane alkaloid pattern in two African convolvulaceous species. Z Naturforsch 62b:285–288Google Scholar
  423. Parello J, Longevialle P, Vetter W, McCloskey, JA (1963) Structure of phyllalbine. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry to the study of tropane derivatives. Bull Soc Chim France, 2787–2793Google Scholar
  424. Parr AJ (1992) Alternative metabolic fates of hygrine in transformed root cultures of Nicandra physalodes. Plant Cell Rep 11:270–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. Parr AJ, Payne J, Eagles J, Chapman BT, Robins RJ, Rhodes MJC (1990) Variation in tropane alkaloid accumulation within the Solanaceae and strategies for its exploitation. Phytochemistry 29:2545–2550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Pena RC, Muñóz O (2002) Cladistic relationship in the genus Schizanthus (Solanaceae). Biochem Syst Ecol 30:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Peterson N (1979) Aboriginal uses of Australian Solanaceae. In: The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Linnean Society Symposium Series No. 7. Academic Press, London, pp 171–189Google Scholar
  428. Petit (1879) Nicotine from Duboisia hopwoodii. J Pharm Chim 29:338–341Google Scholar
  429. Petrie JM (1917a) The chemical investigation of some poisonous plants in the natural order Solanaceae.III. Occurrence of nor-hyoscyamine in Solandra longiflora. Proc Linnean Soc NSW 41:815–822Google Scholar
  430. Petrie JM (1917b) The chemical investigation of some poisonous plants in the natural order Solanaceae. V. Proc Linnean Soc NSW 42:137–145Google Scholar
  431. Philipov S, Berkov S (2002) GC-MS investigation of tropane alkaloids in Datura stramonium. Z Naturforsch 57c:559–561Google Scholar
  432. Phillipson JD, Handa SS (1975a) Nicotine N-oxides. Phytochemistry 12:2683–2690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. Phillipson JD, Handa SS (1975b) N-Oxides of hyoscyamine and hyoscine. Phytochemistry 14:999–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. Phillipson JD, Melville C (1960) An investigation of the alkaloids of some British species of Equisetum. J Pharm Pharmacol 12:506–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. Pictet A, Genequand P (1897) Ueber die Jodmethylate des Nicotins. Ber 30:2117–2125Google Scholar
  436. Pictet A, Rotschy A (1901) Über neue Alkaloide des Tabaks. Ber 34:696–708Google Scholar
  437. Pictet A, Rotschy A (1904) Synthese des Nicotins. Ber 37:1225–1235Google Scholar
  438. Pinner A (1893) Ueber Nicotin (5.Mitt.) Ber 26:292–305Google Scholar
  439. Pinner A (1895) Ueber Nicotin (9.Mitt.) Ber 28:456–465Google Scholar
  440. Platonova TF, Kuzovkov AD (1963) Alkaloids of Cochlearia arctica. Med Prom SSR (Med Ind UdSSR) 17:19–20Google Scholar
  441. Plowman T, Gyllenhaal LO, Lindgren JE (1971) Latua pubiflora–magic plant from Southern Chile. Bot Mus Leafl Harvard Univ 23:61–92Google Scholar
  442. Pomilio AB, Gonzalez MD, Eceizabarrena CC (1996) 7, 8-Dihydroajugasterone C, norhygrine and other constituents of Nierembergia hippomanica. Phytochemistry 41:1393–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. Posselt W, Reimann L (1828) Chemische Untersuchung des Tabaks und Darstellung eines eigenthümlich wirksamen Prinzips dieser Pflanze. Poggend Ann Phys Chem 8:399–410Google Scholar
  444. Pyman FL, Reynolds WC (1908) Meteloidine. A new solanaceous alkaloid. J Chem Soc (Transact) 93:2077–2081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. Rabinovich MS, Konovalova RA (1946) Alkaloids of the Himalayan scopola Anisodus luridus LINK & OTTO. Zhumal Obshchei Khimii 16:2121–2125Google Scholar
  446. Rabot S, Peerless ACJ, Robins RJ (1995) Tigloyl-CoA:pseudotropine acyl transferase – an enzyme of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis. Phytochemistry 39:315–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM (1999). Pharmacology, 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, p 672Google Scholar
  448. Rätsch C (1995) äh kib lu’um–“Das Licht der Erde”–Der Fliegenpilz bei den Lakandonen und in der Neuen Welt. Curare 18:67–93Google Scholar
  449. Rätsch C (2005) The encyclopedia of psychoactive plants – ethnopharmacology and its applications. Inner Traditions, Vermont, USAGoogle Scholar
  450. Ravikanth V, Ramesh P, Diwan PV, Venkateswarlu Y (2001) Pyrazole alkaloids from Elytraria acaulis. Biochem Syst Ecol 29:753–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. Ray AB, Sahai M, Sethi PD (1976) Physoperuvine, a new alkaloid of Physalis peruviana L. Chem Ind (London):454–455Google Scholar
  452. Ray AB, Oshima Y, Hikino H, Kabuto C (1982) Revised structure of physoperuvine, an alkaloid of Physalis peruviana roots. Heterocycles 19:1233–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. Razzakov NA, Aripova SF, Akhmedova E, Karimov A (1999) Alkaloids of Mandragora turcomanica. Chem Nat Comp (Khim Prir Soed) 34:741–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. Razzakov NA, Aripova SF, Yunusov SY (2004) Confolidine, a new alkaloid from the aerial part of Convolvulus subhirsutus. Chem Nat Comp 40:54–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. Reimann A, Nurhayati N, Backenköhler A, Ober D (2004) Repeated evolution of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-mediated defense system in separate angiosperm lineages. Plant Cell 16:1772–2784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. Remington JP, Wood HC (eds) (1918) The dispensatory of the United States of America, 20th edn. J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, USAGoogle Scholar
  457. Reynouts-van Haga P (1954) Cuscohygrine, a normal alkaloid of Atropa belladonna. Nature (London) 174:833–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. Richardson CH, Shepard HH (1930) The insecticidal action of some derivatives of pyridine and pyrrolidine and some aliphatic amines. J Agric Res 40:1007–1015Google Scholar
  459. Richardson CH, Craig LC, Hansberry TR (1936) Toxic action of nicotine, nornicotine and anabasine upon Aphis rumicis. J Econ Entomol 26:850–855Google Scholar
  460. Riechers DE, Timko MP (1999) Structure and expression of the gene family encoding putrescine N-methyltransferase in Nicotiana tabacum: new clues to the evolutionary origin of cultivated tobacco. Plant Mol Biol 41:387–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. Ripperger H (1979) Schizanthin A und B, zwei neue Tropanalklaoide aus Schizanthus pinnatus. Phytochemistry 18:171–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. Ripperger H (1995) S-(−)-Scopolamine and S-(−)-norscopolamine from Atropanthe sinensis. Planta Med 61:292–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  463. Rizvi SJH, Mishra GP, Rizvi V (1989a) Allelopathic effects of nicotine on maize. I. Its possible importance in crop rotation. Plant and Soil 116:289–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. Rizvi SJH, Mishra GP, Rizvi V (1989b) Allelopathic effects of nicotine on maize. Some aspects of its mechanism of action. Plant Soil 116:292–293Google Scholar
  465. Robins DJ (1995) Biosynthesis of pyrrolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids. In: The alkaloids – chemistry and pharmacology, vol 46. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp 1–62Google Scholar
  466. Robins RJ, Walton NJ (1993) The biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids. In: Cordell GA (ed) The alkaloids – chemistry and pharmacology, vol 44. Academic Press, San Diego (CA), USA, pp 115–187Google Scholar
  467. Robins RJ, Parr AJ, Payne J, Walton NJ, Rhodes MJC (1990) Factors regulating tropane-alkaloid production in a transformed root culture of a Datura candida × D. aurea hybrid. Planta 181:414–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  468. Robins RJ, Bachmann P, Peerless ACJ, Rabot S (1994) Esterification reactions in the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids in transformed root cultures. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 38:241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  469. Robins RJ, Abraham TW, Parr AJ, Eagles J, Walton NJ (1997) The biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids in Datura stramonium: the identity of intermediates between N-methylpyrrolinium salt and tropinone. J Am Chem Soc 119:10929–10934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  470. Robinson R (1928) Proceedings of the University of Durham Philosophical Society, 1927–1932, vol 8, p 14; fide O’Hagan and Robins 1998Google Scholar
  471. Robinson R (1955) The structural relations of natural products. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, p 59; fide O’Hagan and Robins 1998Google Scholar
  472. Roeder E (1995) Medicinal plants in Europe containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Pharmazie 50:83–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  473. Rojo HP, Quiroga EN, Vattuone MA, Sampietro AR (1998) Nicotiana glauca invertase: characterization and effects of endogenous alkaloids. Phytochemistry 49:965–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  474. Romeike A (1965a) Über das Vorkommen von Hygrin in Wurzeln von Nicandra physaloides (L.) GAERTN. Pharmazie 20:738–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. Romeike A (1965b) Hygrin, das Hauptalkaloid der Nicandra-Wurzeln. Naturwissenschaften 52:619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. Romeike A (1966) Presence of tropinone in Nicandra roots. Naturwissenschaften 53:82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. Rosenblum EI (1954) Alkaloid variation in wild and cultivated Duboisia leichhardtii. Austral J Appl Sci 5:51–62Google Scholar
  478. Rosenblum EI, Taylor WS (1954) The alkaloids of Duboisia leichhardtii: butropine and valtropine. J Pharm Pharmacol 6:410–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. Roth HJ (2005) Viergliedrige Ringe. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 145, 2036–2042Google Scholar
  480. Rothe G, Garske U, Dräger B (2001) Calystegines in root cultures of Atropa belladonna respond to sucrose, not to elicitation. Plant Sci 160:1043–1053PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. Rother A, Bobbitt JM, Schwarting AE (1962) Structure and synthesis of the alkaloid anaferine. Chem Ind (London):654–655Google Scholar
  482. Rothera ACH (1911) The alkaloid of pituri obtained from Duboisia hopwoodii. Biochem J 5:193–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  483. Runge F (1824) [Atropin-Nachweis durch Pupillenerweiterung] Ann Chim Phys (2), 27; fide Czapek (1925), p 280Google Scholar
  484. Runge F (1825) [Atropin-Nachweis durch Pupillenerweiterung] Schweigg J 43:483 (1825) fide Czapek (1925), p 280Google Scholar
  485. Sahai M, Ray AB (1980) Secotropane alkaloids of Physalis peruviana. J Org Chem 45:3265–3268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. Saitoh F, Noma M, Kawashima N (1985) The alkaloid contents of sixty Nicotiana species. Phytochemistry 24:477–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. Salin-Pascual RJ, Alcocer-Castillejos NV, Alejo-Galarza G (2003) Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. Rev Invest Clin 55:677–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  488. San-Martin A, Rovirosa J, Gambaro V, Castillo M (1980) Tropane alkaloids from Schizanthus hookeri. Phytochemistry 19:2007–2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. San-Martin A, Labbé C, Muñóz O, Castillo M, Reina M, de la Funte G, González A (1987) Tropane alkaloids from Schizanthus grahamii. Phytochemistry 26:819–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. Sarychev Y, Sherstyanykh NA (1985) Pyridine bases in the genus Nicotiana. Tabak (Moscow) 2:6–12Google Scholar
  491. Savikin-Fodulovic KP, Bulatovic VM, Menkovic NR, Grubisic DV (2000) Comparison between the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. obtained from naturally grown and in vitro plants. J Ess Oil Res 12:75–78Google Scholar
  492. Schimming T (2003) Beiträge zur Chemotaxonomie und Phylogenie der Convolvulaceen auf der Basis des Alkaloidvorkommens. Dissertation, Fachbereich Biologie, Chemie, Pharmazie, Freie Universität Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  493. Schimming T, Tofern B, Mann P, Richter A, Jenett-Siems K, Dräger B, Asano N, Gupta MP, Correa MD, Eich E (1998) Distribution and taxonomic significance of calystegines in the Convolvulaceae. Phytochemistry 49:1989–1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. Schimming T, Jenett-Siems K, Mann P, Tofern-Reblin B, Milson J, Johnson RW, Deroin T, Austin DF, Eich E (2005) Calystegines as chemotaxonomic markers in the Convolvulaceae. Phytochemistry 66:469–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  495. Schmeller T, Sporer F, Sauerwein M, Wink M (2000) Binding of tropane alkaloids to nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Pharmazie 50:493–495Google Scholar
  496. Schmidt E (1892) Über Scopolamin (Hyoscin) 1. Mitt. Arch Pharm 230:207–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  497. Schmidt E (1894) Über das Scopolamin. 2. Mitt. Arch Pharm 232:409–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. Schmidt E, Henschke H (1888) Über die Alkaloide der Wurzel von Scopolia japonica. Arch Pharm 226:185–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. Schneider MJ, Brendze S, Montali JA (1995) Alkaloids of Picea breweriana. Phytochemistry 39:1387–1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  500. Schneider NG, Jacob P III, Nilsson F, Leischow SJ, Benowitz NL, Olmstead RE (1997) Saliva cotinine levels as a function of collection method. Addiction 92:347–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  501. Scholl Y, Höke D, Dräger B (2001) Calystegines in Calystegia sepium derive from the tropane alkaloid pathway. Phytochemistry 58:883–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  502. Scholl Y, Schneider B, Dräger B (2003) Biosynthesis of calystegines: 15N NMR and kinetics of formation in root cultures of Calystegia sepium. Phytochemistry 62:325–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  503. Schreiber K, Sembdner G (1960) Über die spezifische Wirkung einiger Solanaceen-Alkaloide auf den Kartoffelnematoden, Heterodera rostochiensis WOLL. Planta Med. 8:107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  504. Schröter HB (1955) Über den Nachweis von Nikotin in der Composite Zinnia elegans und die Bedeutung dieses Alkaloids für die interfamiliäre Propfung Zinnia auf Nicotiana. Arch Pharm 288:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  505. Schröter HB (1958) Ein Alkaloid aus Salpiglossis sinuata. Naturwissenschaften 45:338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  506. Schröter HB (1963) Biosynthese von Pyridin-Alkaloiden. Abhandl Deut Akad Wiss Berlin, Kl Chem Geol Biol (4):99–101Google Scholar
  507. Schröter HB, Neumann D, Katritzky AR, Swinbourne FJ (1966) Withasomnine. A pyrazole alkaloid from Withania somnifera DUN. Tetrahedron 22:2895–2897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. Schulte KE, Rücker G, El-Kersch M (1972) Nicotin und 3-Formyl-4-hydroxy-2H-pyran aus Herpestis monniera. Phytochemistry 11:2649–2651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. Schultes RE (1979) Solanaceous hallucinogens and their role in the development of New World cultures. In: Hawkes, Lester, Skelding (eds) The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Linn Soc Symp Ser, vol 7. Linnean Soc & Academic Press, London, pp 137–160Google Scholar
  510. Schwarting AE, Bobbitt JM, Rother A, Atal CK, Khanna KL, Leary JD, Walter WG (1963) The alkaloids of Withania somnifera. Lloydia (J Nat Prod) 26:258–273Google Scholar
  511. Scott TA, Lynn JP (1967) The incorporation of [2, 3, 7,-14C]nicotinic acid into nicotine by Nicotiana tabacum. Phytochemistry 6:505–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  512. Self LS, Guthrie FE, Hodgson E (1964) Adaptation of tobacco hornworms to the ingestion of nicotine. J Insect Physiol 10:907–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  513. Senft E (1911) Duboisia hopwoodii F.MUELL. (Pituri). Pharmaz Praxis 1Google Scholar
  514. Severson RF, Huesing JE, Jones D, Arrendale RF, Sisson VA (1988a) Identification of tobacco hornworm antibiosis factor from cuticle of Repandae section of Nicotiana species. J Chem Ecol 14:1485–1494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  515. Severson RF, Arrendale RF, Cutler HG, Jones D, Sisson VA, Stephenson MG (1988b) Chemistry and biological activity of acylnornicotines from Nicotiana repanda. In: Cutler (ed), Biologically active natural products: potential use in agriculture. ACS Symposium Series 380. American Chemical Society, Washington/Oxford University Press, pp 335–362Google Scholar
  516. Sevón N, Dräger B, Hiltunen R, Oksman-Caldentey KM (1997) Characterization of transgenic plants derived from hairy roots of Hyoscyamus muticus. Plant Cell Rep 16:605–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  517. Shang Y, Wang YF, Liang YX, Cai NS (2003) The effect of several memory-improving agents on memory impairment in mice by anisodine. Zhongguo Xinyao Zazhi 12:821–823Google Scholar
  518. Sharova EG, Aripova SF, Yunusov SY (1980) Alkaloids of Convolvulus subhirsutus. Khim Prir Soedin:672–676Google Scholar
  519. Shaw S, Bencherif M, Marrero MB (2003) Angiotensin II blocks nicotine-mediated neuroprotection against ß-amyloid (1–42) via activation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. J Neurosci 23:11224–11228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  520. Shepherd JA (1999) Nematode pests of tobacco. In: Davis DL, Nielsen MT (eds) Tobacco – production, chemistry and technology. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 216–227Google Scholar
  521. Shmuk AA, Borozdina A (1941) Alkaloids of various plant species within the genus Nicotiana. C R (Doklady) Acad Sci URSS 32:62–65Google Scholar
  522. Shonle I, Bergelson J (2000) Evolutionary ecology of the tropane alkaloids of Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae). Evolution 54:778–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  523. Shukla YN, Thakur RS (1992) Tropane alkaloids from Duboisia myoporoides. Phytochemistry 31:4389–4390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. Siddiqi MA, Suri KA, Suri OP, Atal CK (1979) New pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Crotalaria candicans. Phytochemistry 18:1413–1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. Siddiqui S, Sultana N, Ahmed SS, Haider SI (1986) Isolation and structure of a new alkaloid datumetine from the leaves of Datura metel. J Nat Prod 49:511–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  526. Siegmund B, Leitner E, Pfannhauser W (1999) Determination of the nicotine content of various edible nightshades (Solanaceae) and their products and estimation of the associated dietary nicotine intake. J Agric Food Chem 47:3113–3120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  527. Silva M, Mancinelli P (1959) Atropina en Latua pubiflora (Griseb.) Phil Boletin Soc Chil Quim 9:49–50Google Scholar
  528. Sim KL, Perry D (1997) Analysis of swainsonine and its early metabolic precursors in cultures of Metarhizium anisopliae. Glycoconj J 14:661–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  529. Siminszky B, Gavilano L, Bowen SW, Dewey RE (2005) Conversion of nicotine to nornicotine in Nicotiana tabacum is mediated by CYP82E4, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. PNAS 102:14919–14924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  530. Singh J, Dhar KL, Atal CK (1971) Studies on the genus Piper: part XII. Structure of trichonine, a new N-pyrrolidinyl-eicosa-trans, trans-2, 4-dienamide. Tetrahedron Lett:2119–2120Google Scholar
  531. Sisson VA, Severson RF (1990) Alkaloid composition of the Nicotiana species. Beiträge zur Tabakforschung International 14:327–339Google Scholar
  532. Siva Raju K, Krishnamurthy GVG (1996) Biochemical changes in tobacco plants infested with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. Tobacco Res 22:116–119Google Scholar
  533. Smith CR (1937) Occurrence of l-nornicotine in Nicotiana sylvestris. J Econ Entomol 20:724–727Google Scholar
  534. Smith HH, Abashian DV (1963) Chromatographic investigations on the alkaloid content of Nicotiana species and interspecific combinations. Am J Bot 50:435–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  535. Smith HH, Smith CR (1942) Alkaloids in certain species and interspecific hybrids of Nicotiana. J Agric Res 65:347–359Google Scholar
  536. Snyder MJ, Hsu EL, Feyereisen R (1993) Induction of cytochrome P-450 activities by nicotine in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. J Chem Ecol 19:2903–2916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  537. Soeda Y, Yamamoto I (1969) Nicotinoids as insecticides. VIII. Physiological activities of the optical isomers of nicotinoids. Bochu Kagaku 34:57–62Google Scholar
  538. Solt ML, Dawson RF, Christman DR (1960) Biosynthesis of anabasine and of nicotine by excised root cultures of Nicotiana glauca. Plant Physiol 35:887–894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  539. Song W, Liu J, Jin R (1997) Chemical constituents of the stems of Erycibe schmidtii CRAIB. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi (China J Chin Mat Med) 22:359–360, 384Google Scholar
  540. Späth E, Kesztler F (1937a) Tabak-Basen. XI. Mitteil. l-Anatabine, ein neues Tabakalkaloid. Ber. 70B:239–243Google Scholar
  541. Späth E, Kesztler F (1937b) Tabak-Alkaloide. XII. Mitteil. Über das Vorkommen von dl-Nor-nicotin, dl-Anatabine und l-Anabasine im Tabak. Ber. 70B:704–709Google Scholar
  542. Späth E, Kesztler F (1937c) Tabak-Alkaloide. XIII. Mitteil. Über neue Basen des Tabaks. Ber 70B:2450–2454Google Scholar
  543. Späth E, Zajic E (1935) Tabak-Basen. III. l-Nor-nicotin. Ber 68B:1667–1670Google Scholar
  544. Späth E, Zajic E (1936) Über neue Tabak-Alkaloide (VIII. Teil über Tabakbasen) und Bemerkungen zur Kenntnis des Rhoeadins, des l-Peganins und des Ammoresinols. Ber 69B:2448–2452Google Scholar
  545. Späth E, Hicks CS, Zajic E (1935) Über d-Nor-nicotin, ein Alkaloid von Duboisia hopwoodii F.v.Muell. Ber 68B:1388–1393Google Scholar
  546. Späth E, Wenusch A, Zajic E (1936) Tabak-Basen. V. Mitteil. Die Konstitution des Myosmins. Ber 69B:393–396Google Scholar
  547. Staub H (1962) Über die chemischen Bestandteile der Mandragorawurzel. 2. Die Alkaloide. Helv Chim Acta 45:2297–2305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  548. Stech M, Austin DF, Schimming T, Eich E (2007) Phylogenetic inference in Ipomoea section Mina (Convolvulaceae): Molecular relationships and the significance of phytochemical and morphological characters (to be published)Google Scholar
  549. Steinegger E (1972) Alkaloiddrogen. In: Steinegger E, Hänsel R (eds) Lehrbuch der Phar-makognosie – Auf phytochemischer Grundlage, 3. Aufl. Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  550. Steinegger E, Phokas G (1955) Zur Konstitution von Bellaradin. Pharm Acta Helv 30:441–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  551. Stenzel O, Teuber M, Dräger B (2006) Putrescine N-methyltransferase in Solanum tuberosum L., a calystegine-forming plant. Planta 223:200–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  552. Steppuhn A, Gase K, Krock B, Halitschke R, Balwin IT (2004) Nicotine’s defensive function in nature. PLoS Biol 2:1074–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  553. Stevens JF, T’Hart H, Hendricks H, Malingre TM (1992) Alkaloids of some European and Macaronesian Sedoideae and Sempervivoideae (Crassulaceae). Phytochemistry 31:3917–3924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  554. Stumpf PK, Jones AT (1963) The biosynthesis of long chain fatty acids by lettuce chloroplasts. Biochem Biophys Acta 70:20–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. Suzuki U, Shamimura T, Odake S (1912) Über Oryzanin, ein Bestandteil der Reiskleie, und seine physiologische Bedeutung. Biochem Z 43:89–153Google Scholar
  556. Taylor P (1995) Agents acting at the neuromuscular junction and autonomic ganglia. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, Ruddon RW, Goodman Gilman A (eds) Goodman & Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 9th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 177–197Google Scholar
  557. Tepfer D, Goldmann A, Pamboukdjian N, Maille M, Lepingle A, Chevalier D, Dénarié J, Rosenberg C (1988) A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudates of Calystegia sepium. J Bacteriol 170:1153–1161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  558. Teuscher E, Lindequist U (1994) Biogene Gifte – Biologie, Chemie, Pharmakologie. Gustav Fischer Stuttgart, p 471Google Scholar
  559. Tiburcio AF, Galston AW (1985) Arginine decarboxylase as the source of putrescine for tobacco alkaloids. Phytochemistry 25:107–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  560. Todd FG, Stermitz FR, Schultheis P, Knight AP, Traub-Dargatz J (1995) Tropane alkaloids and toxicity of Convolvulus arvensis. Phytochemistry 39:301–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  561. Tofern B (1999) Neue und seltene Sekundärstoffe des Phenylpropan-, Terpen- und Alkaloid-Stoffwechsels aus tropischen Convolvulaceen. Dissertation, Fachbereich Pharmazie, Freie Universität Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  562. Tofern B, Kaloga M, Witte L, Hartmann T, Eich E (1996) Comparative study of two convolvulaceous species: complex pattern of alkaloids in Ipomoea muricata and Ipomoea alba. Book of Abstracts, 44th Annual Congress of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research and a Joint Meeting with the Czech Biotechnology Society, Prague, p 146 (P 247)Google Scholar
  563. Tofern B, Mann P, Kaloga M, Jenett-Siems K, Witte L, Eich E (1999) Aliphatic pyrrolidine amides from two tropical convolvulaceous species. Phytochemistry 52:1437–1441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  564. Tolksdorff W, Meisel R, Müller P, Bender HJ (1985) Transdermales Scopolamin (TTS-Scopolamin) zur Prophylaxe postoperativer Übelkeit und Erbrechen. Anaesthesist 34:656–663Google Scholar
  565. Tomizawa M, Yamamoto I (1992) Binding of nicotinoids and the related compounds to the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. J Pestic Sci (Internat Ed) 17:231–236Google Scholar
  566. Trautner EM, McCallum IAN (1950) The action of tropine and heliotridine-alkaloids on the excitation, propagation, and recovery in muscle. Austral J Exp Biol Med Sci 28:343–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  567. Trigo JR, Brown KS Jr, Henriques SA, Barata LES (1996) Qualitative patterns of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Ithomiinae butterflies. Biochem Syst Ecol 24:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  568. Tso TC (1999) Seed to smoke. In: Davis DL, Nielsen MT (eds) Tobacco – production, chemistry and technology. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  569. Vakhabov AA, Sultanov MB, Mirzamatov RT (1975) Pharmacology of 6-hydroxyhyoscyamine. Doklady Akademii Nauk USSR 26Google Scholar
  570. Vasinev VS (1970) Composition of alkaloids in hybrids and wild species of tobacco. Studencheskie Nauchnye Raboty, Universitet Druzhby Narodov, No. 15, pp 108–112Google Scholar
  571. Vauquelin LN (1809a) Tobacco. Ann Chim 71:139–157; fide Czapek (1925), p 277Google Scholar
  572. Vauquelin LN (1809b) Atropa belladonna. Ann Chim 72: 53; fide Czapek (1925) p 280Google Scholar
  573. Vitale AA, Acher A, Pomilio AB (1995) Alkaloids of Datura ferox from Argentina. J Ethnopharmacol 49:81–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  574. Wahl R (1952) Über das Vorkommen und den Nachweis kleinster Nikotinmengen in Tomatenblättern. Tabak-Forschung No 8:3Google Scholar
  575. Wahl R (1953) Tabak-Forschung No 10:3–4 fide Hegnauer R (1973) Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen vol. 6. Birkhäuser, Basel, p 407Google Scholar
  576. Wahlberg I (1999) Smokeless tobacco. In: Davis DL, Nielsen MT (eds) Tobacco – production, chemistry and technology. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 452–460Google Scholar
  577. Wahlberg I, Karlsson K, Austin DJ, Junker N, Roeraade J, Enzell C, Johnson WH (1977) Tobacco chemistry. Part 38. Effects of flue-curing and aging on the volatile, neutral and acidic constituents of Virginia tobacco. Phytochemistry 16:1217–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  578. Wang P, Yao T, Chen Z (1989) Chemical constituents of Erycibe hainensis. Zhiwu Xuebao 31:616–619Google Scholar
  579. Wang ZB, Wu XQ (1979) Variation of the contents of two alkaloids in Anisodus tanguticus. Zhiwu Xuebao 21:85–87Google Scholar
  580. Warfield AH, Galloway WD, Kallianos AG (1972) New alkaloids from burley tobacco. Phytochemistry 11:3371–3375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  581. Waterman PG (1998) Alkaloid chemosystematics. In: Cordell GA (ed) The alkaloids – chemistry and biology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 537–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  582. Watson AA, Davies DR, Asano N, Winchester B, Kato A, Molyneux RJ, Stegelmeier BL, Nash RJ (2000) Calystegine alkaloids in the potato and other food plants. In: Natural and selected synthetic toxins: biological implications, ACS Symposium Series, vol 745. Oxford University Press, Washington DC, pp 129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  583. Watson AA, Fleet GWJ, Asano N, Molyneux RJ, Nash RJ (2001) Polyhydroxylated alkaloids – natural occurrence and therapeutic applications. Phytochemistry 56:265–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  584. Watson PL, Luanratana O, Griffin WJ (1983) The ethnopharmacology of pituri. J Ethnopharmacol 8:303–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  585. Weeks WW (1999) Relationship between leaf chemistry and organoleptic properties of tobacco smoke. In: Davis DL, Nielsen MT (eds) Tobacco – production, chemistry and technology. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 304–312Google Scholar
  586. Weigl R (1992) Entdeckung, Isolierung und Strukturaufklärung neuer Alkaloide im Rahmen chemotaxonomischer Untersuchungen an Convolvulaceen. Dissertation, Fachbereich Pharmazie, Freie Universität Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  587. Weigl R, Kaloga M, Eich E (1992) Merresectines: novel tropane alkaloids from Merremia dissecta roots. Planta Med 58:A705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  588. Wenusch A (1935) Über das Auftreten von Nicotyrin im Tabak. Biochem Z 275:361Google Scholar
  589. Westendorf J (1992) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids – general discussion. In: De Smet PAG, Keller K, Hänsel R, Chandler RF (eds) Adverse effects of herbal frugs, vol 1. Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp 192–205Google Scholar
  590. Wilbert J (1972) Tobacco and shamanistic ecstasy among the Warrao Indians of Venezuela. In: Furst PT (ed) Flesh of the gods. Praeger Publisher, New York, pp 55–83Google Scholar
  591. Wilhelm H, Wilhelm B, Schiefer U (1991) Mydriasis caused by plant contact. Fortschr Opthalm 88:588–591Google Scholar
  592. Willstätter R (1898a) Ueber die Constitution des Tropins. Ber 30:2679–2719Google Scholar
  593. Willstätter R (1898b) Ueber die Constitution der Spaltungsproducte von Atropin und Cocain. Ber 31:1534–1553Google Scholar
  594. Wink M (1998) Chemical ecology of alkaloids. In: Roberts MF, Wink M (eds) Alkaloids. Plenum, New York, pp 265–300Google Scholar
  595. Wink M (2000) Interference of alkaloids with neuroreceptors and ion channels. In: Atta-ur-Rahman (ed) Studies in natural products chemistry, vol 21. Bioactive natural products (Part B). Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 3–122Google Scholar
  596. Wink M (2003) Evolution of secondary metabolites from an ecological and molecular phylogenetic perspective. Phytochemistry 64:3–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  597. Winterstein E, Trier G (1931) Die Alkaloide, 2nd edn. Borntraeger, Berlin, p 1031Google Scholar
  598. Witte L, Müller K, Arfmann HA (1987) Investigation of the alkaloid pattern of Datura inoxia plants by capillary gas-liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Planta Med 53:192–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  599. Wöhler F, Lossen W (1862) Fortsetzung der Untersuchungen über die Coca und das Cocain. Liebigs Ann Chem 121:372–375Google Scholar
  600. Wolfes O, Hromatka O (1933) Über ein Tropanderivat aus Cocablättern. Jahresberichte E. Merck, Darmstadt, pp 45–53Google Scholar
  601. Wollweber D, Tietjen K (1999) Chloronicotinyl insecticides: a success of the new chemistry. In: Yamamoto I, Casida JE (eds) Nicotinoid insecticides and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Springer, Tokyo, pp 109–125Google Scholar
  602. Wolters B (1994) Drogen, Pfeilgift und Indianermedizin – Arzneipflanzen aus Südamerika. Urs Freund Verlag, Greifenberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  603. Xiao P, He L, Wang L (1983) Constituents in Tibetan traditional medicines. Zhongyao Tongbao 9:10–11Google Scholar
  604. Xie JX, Yang JH, Zhao YX, Zhang YX, Zhang CZ (1983) Absolute configuration of (−)-anisodine (a new ganglio blocking agent) and (−)-anisodinic acid. Sci Sin Ser B (Chung-kuo K’o Hsueh Yuan, Chu Pan) 26:931–935Google Scholar
  605. Yajima A, Yabuta G (2001) Synthesis and absolute configuration of MQ-A3 [1-(14ʹ-methylhexadecanoyl) pyrrolidine], a novel aliphatic pyrrolidine amide from the tropical convolvulaceous species. Biosci Biotech Biochem 65:463–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  606. Yamada T, Takahashi H, Hatano R (1999) A novel insecticide, acetamiprid. In: Yamamoto I, Casida JE (eds) Nicotinoid insecticides and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Springer, Tokyo, pp 149–176Google Scholar
  607. Yamada Y, Endo T (1984) Tropane alkaloid production in cultured cells of Duboisia leichhardtii. Plant Cell Rep 3:168–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  608. Yamada Y, Hashimoto T (1989) Substrate specifity of the hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase from cultured roots of Hyoscyamus niger. Proc Jpn Acad, Ser B Phys Biol Sci 65:156–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  609. Yamaguchi H, Nishimoto K (1965) Studies on the alkaloids of the root of Physalis alkekengi (I). Isolation of 3α-tigloyloxytropane. Chem Pharm Bull 13:217–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  610. Yamaguchi H, Numata A, Hokimoto (1974) Studies on the alkaloids of Physalis alkekengi (II). J Pharm Soc Jpn 94:1115–1123Google Scholar
  611. Yamamoto I, Kamimura H, Yamamoto R, Sakai S, Goda M (1962) Studies on nicotinoids as an insecticide. I. Relation of structure to toxicity. Agric Biol Chem 26:709–716Google Scholar
  612. Yamamoto I, Soeda Y, Kamimura H, Yamamoto R (1968) Nicotinoids as insecticides. VII. Cholinesterase inhibition by nicotinoids and pyridylalkylamines, its significance to mode of action. Agr Biol Chem 32:1341–1348Google Scholar
  613. Yamamoto I, Yabuta G, Tomizawa M, Saito T, Miyamoto T, Kagabu S (1995) Molecular mechanism for selective toxicity of nicotinoids and neonicotinoids. Nippon Noyaku Gakkaishi 20:33–40Google Scholar
  614. Yamamoto I, Tomizawa M, Saito T, Miyamoto T, Walcott EC, Sumikawa K (1998) Structural factors contributing to insecticidal and selective actions of neonicotinoids. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 37:24–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  615. Yao T, Chen Z, Yi D, Xu G (1981) Chemical study on Bao Gong-teng (Erycibe obtusifolia BENTH.). II. Structure of baogongteng A – a new myotic agent. Yaoxue Xuebao 16:582–588Google Scholar
  616. Yunusov SY, Shakirov TT, Plekhanova NV (1958) Alkaloids of Convolvulus subhirsutus. Doklady Akademii Nauk USSR 10:17–20Google Scholar
  617. Zador E, Jones D (1986) The biosynthesis of a novel nicotine alkaloid in the trichomes of Nicotiana stocktonii. Plant Physiol 82:479–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  618. Zhang J, Xu M (1995) Synthesis and antispasmodic activity of pyrrolidine alkaloid derivatives. Zhongguo Yaowu Huaxue Zazhi 5:109–112Google Scholar
  619. Zhaolou Y, Naijue Z, Renrong L, Shaopei C, Xiafei L, Zhujin L (1985) Crystal and molecular structure of ipohardine picrate, C15H16NOxC6H2N3O7. Jiegou Huaxue 4:152–155Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Personalised recommendations