Waste Stabilization Ponds: A Highly Appropriate Wastewater Treatment Technology for Mediterranean Countries

  • Duncan Mara

This chapter describes waste stabilization pond (WSP) systems for wastewater treatment. WSP systems comprise a series of anaerobic and facultative ponds and sometimes maturation ponds. Rock filters can be used instead of maturation ponds and they can be aerated to remove ammonia and to improve biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids removals. Effluent quality is high, and properly designed and well maintained WSP systems produce effluents that can be safely used for both restricted and unrestricted crop irrigation.


Activate Sludge Biochemical Oxygen Demand Effluent Quality Waste Stabilization Pond Anaerobic Pond 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Duncan Mara
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations