Biological Iron Oxidation and Sulfate Reduction in the Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage at Low Temperatures

  • Anna H. Kaksonen
  • Mark Dopson
  • Olia Karnachuk
  • Olli H. Tuovinen
  • Jaakko A. Puhakka

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is the result of exposure of sulfidic seams to the oxidizing and leaching action of water—rain water, humidity, and groundwater— and is exacerbated by microorganisms that catalyze the solubilization of sulfide minerals by the regeneration of Fe3+ and oxidation of their dissolution products as the source of energy. Typical AMD has a low pH and a high sulfate and ferric iron concentration although other metals may also be present. The chemical composition of AMD varies with sulfide minerals associated with coal and metal mines. At low pH, ferric iron in AMD participates in the leaching action, as shown for pyrite (FeS2) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS2):


Acid Mine Drainage Hydraulic Retention Time Mine Tailing Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans Permeable Reactive Barrier 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna H. Kaksonen
    • 1
  • Mark Dopson
    • 2
  • Olia Karnachuk
    • 3
  • Olli H. Tuovinen
    • 4
  • Jaakko A. Puhakka
    • 5
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Engineering and BiotechnologyTampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland
  2. 2.Department of Molecular BiologyUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  3. 3.Department of Plant Physiology and BiotechnologyTomsk State UniversityTomskRussia
  4. 4.Department of MicrobiologyOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  5. 5.Institute of Environmental Engineering and BiotechnologyTampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland

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